Literature Review

The following is a draft research bibliography of public and academic sources gathered from the past several years as a part of an international literature review on the roots, ripples, and responses to gentrification in the arts.

Last updated: February 15, 2018.  


“9 Principles of Ethical Redevelopment.” University of Chicago: Place Lab, 2017.

“10 People-Centred Smart City Initiatives.” Nesta. Accessed October 1, 2017.

“13th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2017 Rating Middle-Income Housing Affordability (Data 2016: 3rd Quarter).” Demographia, 2017.

“185,000 Jobs At Risk From Ontario’s Minimum Wage Hike, Groups Warn.” HuffPost Canada, August 14, 2017.

“2016 Culture for Competitiveness Study.” Business for the Arts, 2016.

“A City on the Cusp: Neighborhood Change in Hamilton since 1970,” n.d.

“A Healthy Arts Ecosystem.” Createquity. Accessed November 17, 2017.

“A Statistical Profile of Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada.” Hamilton, ON: Hill Strategies Research, October 7, 2014.

“A Vibrant Community: Richmond Hill’s Cultural Plan Final Report.” Millder Dickinson Blais, AuthentiCity, PublicInterest. Accessed October 13, 2017.

Aberg-Riger, Ariel. “The Egalitarian Community New York Pushed Out For Central Park.” CityLab. Accessed October 3, 2017.

“Acting in Solidarity: Working for a Living Wage.” HowlRound. Accessed September 30, 2017.

Adjekum, Sarah. “We Need to Talk about Gentrification and Public Health.” The Hamilton Spectator, February 11, 2018, sec. Opinion.

Affordable Housing Crisis Ideas That Are So Crazy They Just Might Work. Accessed November 1, 2017.

Affording the Unaffordable. Accessed November 1, 2017.

Agilo, Jessa. “Groundstory: Call for Partners.” ArtsPond, June 27, 2017.

Ahmadi, Donya. “Diversity and Social Cohesion: The Case of Jane-Finch, a Highly Diverse Lower-Income Toronto Neighbourhood.” Urban Research & Practice 0, no. 0 (April 10, 2017): 1–20.

Ahmadi, Donya, and Tuna Tasan-Kok. “Assessment of Urban Policies in Canada.” Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, August 4, 2014.

———. “Assessment of Urban Policies in Toronto, Canada.” Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, 2014.

Aiello, Giorgia, Clovis Bergère, Lisa Daily, Linda Doyle, Stephen Duncombe, Catherine D’Ignazio, Jessica Foley, et al. DIY Utopia: Cultural Imagination and the Remaking of the Possible. Edited by Amber Day. Lexington Books, 2016.

Aitken, J. “Art Practices & The Housing Crisis.” edited by J. Aitken. The People’s History Museum, 2016.

Ajamu, Amadi. “Gentrification Is Ethnic Cleansing.” Amsterdam News. September 7, 2017.

Albet, Abel, and Núria Benach, eds. Gentrification as a Global Strategy: Neil Smith and Beyond. 1 edition. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Albright, Cliff. “Gentrification Is Sweeping through America. Here Are the People Fighting Back.” The Guardian, November 10, 2017, sec. US News.

Alejandro, Roberto. “A Blueprint for Development without Displacement in Baltimore.” Baltimore Brew (blog), January 29, 2016.

Alexiou, Alice Sparberg. Jane Jacobs: Urban Visionary. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press, 2006.

Ali, Masooma. “No Pride in Gentrification: An Intersectional Look at Gay Neighbourhoods.” The Underground (blog), April 20, 2016.

Aliermo, April. “If We Value What Art Brings to Our Cities, We Must Understand That Artists Are Part of an Ecosystem.” CBC Arts, January 19, 2018.

Allard, Scott W. Places in Need: The Changing Geography of Poverty. 1 edition. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2017.

“Alliance to End Homelessness Ottawa.” The Alliance to End Homelessness Ottawa. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“All-In Cities: An Initiative of PolicyLink.” Accessed October 14, 2017.

“An Introduction to Art, Design & Gentrification.” Creative Resistance How-to Series. Toronto: The Public Studio. Accessed November 14, 2017.,_Design_and_Gentrification.pdf.

“Anchor Institutions.” The Prosperous Province: Strategies for Building Community Wealth. Mowat Centre and Atkinson Foundation. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Anderson, Alan B. Home in the City: Urban Aboriginal Housing and Living Conditions. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2013.

Anderson, Darran. “Story of Cities #future: What Will Our Growing Megacities Really Look Like?” The Guardian, May 26, 2016, sec. Cities.

Anderson, Elijah. Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

Andersson, Åke E., David Emanuel Andersson, Zara Daghbashyan, and Björn Hårsman. “Location and Spatial Clustering of Artists.” Regional Science and Urban Economics 47 (July 2014): 128–37.

Andrew, Paul, Tim Aubry, Yale Belanger, Cynthia Bird, Christina Birdsall-Jones, Marleny M. Bonnycastle, Deidre Brown, et al. Indigenous Homelessness: Perspectives from Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Winnipeg, Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press, 2016.

Andrew-Gee, Eric. “Should Toronto Have a Higher Minimum Wage than the Rest of Ontario?” The Toronto Star, December 2, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Toronto Is Divided, but Not as Badly as Other Major Cities.” The Toronto Star, December 7, 2014, sec. GTA.

“Anger into Action: Anti-Gentrification Attacks This Summer in Hamilton.” The Hamilton Institute (blog). Accessed October 5, 2017.

Anigacz, Alice M. “Are Residents Who Are Displaced by Gentrification Better or Worse Off After Relocating?” Honors Projets, Paper 28, 2010.

“Anti-Eviction Mapping Project.” Accessed October 5, 2017.

“Anti-Gentrification Summit.” Buffalo Rising (blog), October 7, 2017.

Antwi, Phanuel, and Amber Dean. “Unfixing Imaginings of the City: Art, Gentrification, and Cultures of Surveillance.” Affinities: A Journal of Radical Theory, Culture, and Action; What Is the Radical Imagination?, 2010.

Aravena, Alejandro, and Andres Iacobelli. Elemental: Incremental Housing and Participatory Design Manual. Box Blg edition. Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2013.

Ark, Tom Vander. Smart Cities That Work for Everyone: 7 Keys to Education & Employment. Edited by Mary Ryerse. 1 edition. Eifrig Publishing LLC, 2014.

Arroyo, Kiley. “Creative Democracy: Applying the Lessons of Creative Placemaking to Policymaking.” Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 2017.

“Art and Gentrification: A Dangerous Gentrification Definition.” Culture Hog (blog), May 30, 2017.

“Art Districts.” Benjamen Walker’s Theory of Everything. Accessed November 25, 2017.

“Artist Coalition for Equitable Development.” Vanishing Seattle. Accessed October 18, 2017.

“Artists Align with Anti-Displacement Movements.” The Mainlander (blog), February 9, 2018.

“Artivate Special Issue: Creative Placemaking & Arts Entrepreneurship.” ArtPlace America, September 27, 2017.

“ArtPlace America.” ArtPlace America. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Arts & Culture Archives.” Shelterforce (blog). Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Arts & Culture Master Plan.” City of Port Colborne, May 2016.

“Arts Careers.” Createquity. Accessed November 3, 2017.

“Artscape DIY – Square Feet: The Artist’s Guide to Renting and Buying Creative Space.” Accessed October 14, 2017.

“Artscape to Create 70 New Artist Live/Work Studios in Toronto’s Junction Triangle.” Canadian Art (blog). Accessed September 28, 2017.

“As Denver’s Neighborhoods Gentrify, the Poor Are Pushed to New Pockets of Poverty.” The Denver Post (blog), June 23, 2017.

Asmar, Melanie. “Gentrification Is Changing Denver Schools. These Recommendations Aim to Address That.” Chalkbeat (blog), December 12, 2017.

Asthana, Anushka, Jessica Elgot, and Rowena Mason. “Jeremy Corbyn: Neoliberalism Is Broken and We Are Now the Centre Ground.” The Guardian, September 27, 2017, sec. Politics.

Atkinson, Anthony B. Inequality: What Can Be Done? Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2015.

Atkinson, Rowland. “The Evidence on the Impact of Gentrification: New Lessons for the Urban Renaissance?” International Journal of Housing Policy 4, no. 1 (January 2004): 107–31.

Atkinson, Rowland, and Gary Bridge, eds. Gentrification in a Global Context. 1 edition. London ; New York: Routledge, 2005.

“Atypical Work in the Arts, Entertainment and Media.” International Federation of Musicians (blog), September 14, 2016.

Auberbach, Jeremy, Hayley Barton, Takeria Blunt, Vishwamitra Chaganti, Bhavya Ghai, Amanda Meng, Christopher Blackburn, Ellen Zegura, and Pamela Flores. “Using Data Science as a Community Advocacy Tool to Promote Equity in Urban Renewal Programs: An Analysis of Atlanta’s Anti-Displacement Tax Fund.” Chicago, Illinois, 2017.

August, Martine. “Revitalisation Gone Wrong: Mixed-Income Public Housing Redevelopment in Toronto’s Done Mount Court.” Urban Studies Vol 53, no. Issue 16 (December 1, 2016): 3405–22.

August, Martine, and Alan Walks. “Gentrification, Suburban Decline, and the Financialization of Multi-Family Rental Housing: The Case of Toronto.” Geoforum, May 27, 2017.

“Australian Party Proposes a Living Wage for Artists.” Dazed, June 10, 2016.

Austrom, Elizabeth. “Urban Revitalization: Best Practices to Prevent Residential Displacement Due to Gentrification.” University of Calgary, August 23, 2006.

Axel-Lute, Miriam. “Bringing Together Arts and Community Development.” Shelterforce (blog), January 11, 2017.

Baci, Erina, Jose Costantini, JayLynn Hines, and ARe Hunter AIS & Bronwen. “Exploring the Link Between Rising House Prices and Counter Urbanization in Toronto with a GIS Approach.” Landmarks: The Undergraduate Geography Journal, University of Toronto 3 (Fall 2017): 76–95.

Badger, Emily. “How to Predict Gentrification: Look for Falling Crime.” The New York Times, January 5, 2017, sec. The Upshot.

———. “How to Predict Rising Home Prices, Neighborhood Change and Gentrification.” Washington Post, August 4, 2015, sec. Wonkblog.

Bain, Alison L. “Artists as Property Owners and Small-Scale Developers.” Urban Geography, November 20, 2017, 1–24.

———. “Constructing Contemporary Artistic Identities in Toronto Neighbourhoods.” The Canadian Geographer/Le G?Ographe Canadien 47, no. 3 (September 2003): 303–17.

Bain, Alison L. “Neighbourhood Artistic Disaffiliation in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.” Urban Studies, July 15, 2016.

Bain, Alison L. “Resisting the Creation of Forgotten Places: Artistic Production in Toronto Neighbourhoods.” Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien 50, no. 4 (November 14, 2006): 417–31.

Bain, Alison L., and Friederike Landau. “Artists, Temporality, and the Governance of Collaborative Place-Making.” Urban Affairs Review, May 28, 2017.

Bakhshi, Hasan, Jonathan M. Downing, Michael A. Osborne, and Philippe Schneider. “The Future of Skills: Employment in 2030.” Nesta, September 28, 2017.

Baldwin, Richard. The Great Convergence. Harvard University Press, 2016.

Ballingall, Alex. “$500-Million Netflix Deal Anchors Canada’s Culture Plan.” The Toronto Star, September 28, 2017, sec. Canada.

“Baltimore’s Push to Solve Its Affordable Housing Crisis With Community Land Trusts.” Resilience (blog), August 25, 2017.

Bancroft Davis, Taylor. “Building Impact – Decent Work for the Nonprofit Workforce.” The Public Policy & Governance Review (blog), October 11, 2016.

Bandarin, Francesco. “Culture: Key to the Sustainability of Cities.” World Heritage. In Foucs: Sustainable Cities. Paris (France): UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Accessed October 13, 2017.

“BANgentrification.” BANgentrification. Accessed November 14, 2017.

Banting, Keith, and John Myles, eds. Inequality and the Fading of Redistributive Politics. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2014.

Barmak, Sarah. “Ossington a Booming Creative Hub … for Now.” The Toronto Star, March 14, 2010, sec. Entertainment.

Barnard, Linda. “Toronto’s Distillery District Evolves from Tourist Attraction to Local Destination.” The Toronto Star, June 5, 2013, sec. Life.

Barrington-Bush, Liam. “Is This Corner the Tipping Point for Parkdale?” NOW Magazine, November 16, 2017.

Barron, Seth. “The Left Lies about Gentrification.” NY Daily News. September 24, 2017.

Barton, Michael. “An Exploration of the Importance of the Strategy Used to Identify Gentrification.” Urban Studies 53, no. 1 (January 1, 2016): 92–111.

Baskerville, Peter A. Ontario: Image, Identity, and Power. Don Mills, Ont: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Batabyal, Amitrajeet A. “A Note on Optimal Income Redistribution in a Creative Region.” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, June 12, 2017.

Bates, Lisa K. “Gentrification and Displacement Study: Implementing an Equitable Inclusive Development Strategy in the Context of Gentrification.” City of Portland, Bureau of Planning and Sustainability, May 18, 2013.

“Battle of Ideas – Battle Satellite ‘Cultural Regeneration or Gentrification?’” Bow Arts. Accessed October 13, 2017.

Bauman, Jesse. “Waterloo Region’s Gentrification Fixation.” The Community Edition, November 9, 2015.

Beattie, Samantha. “Toronto Council Backs 50 per Cent Property Tax Reduction for Culture Hubs.” The Toronto Star, February 12, 2018, sec. City Hall.

Beaumont, Hilary. “Pushed out by Gentrification?” The Coast Halifax (blog), August 8, 2013.

Bélanger, Hélène. Space Affordances and Cultural Resilience in Gentrifying Neighbourhoods: An Ecological Perspective, 2017.

Bell, Lauren E., and Patricia Van Velsor. “Counseling in the Gentrified Neighborhood: What School Counselors Should Know (Conceptual).” Professional School Counseling 21, no. 1 (January 2017): 161–68.

Bellafante, Ginia. “Tracking the Hyper-Gentrification of New York, One Lost Knish Place at a Time.” The New York Times, September 27, 2017, sec. Book Review.

Bemma, Adam. Montréal, Tales of Gentrification in a Bohemian City, 2012.–wQdGQQ.

Bennett, Kelly. “Stories from a Shifting City, Told by 8 Hamilton Artists.” CBC.Ca, February 24, 2017, sec. CBC News: Hamilton.

Benneworth, Paul, Magnus Gulbrandsen, and Ellen Hazelkorn. The Impact and Future of Arts and Humanities Research. 1st ed. 2016 edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Benns, Mr Roderick. Basic Income: How a Canadian Movement Could Change the World. Whitby, Ont.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2016.

Benzie, Robert. “Sousa Set to Unveil 10 Measures Targeting Housing Affordability.” The Toronto Star, April 18, 2017, sec. Queen’s Park.

———. “TD Warns Raising Minimum Wage Could Cost 90,000 Jobs.” The Toronto Star, September 26, 2017, sec. Queen’s Park.

Bernard, Tara Siegel. “A Down Payment With a Catch: You Must Be an Airbnb Host.” The New York Times, September 18, 2017, sec. Your Money.

Berney, Rachel, Hillary Dawkins, Bernease Herman, Jacob Kovacs, Gundula Proksch, Yahui Ma, Jacob Rich, and Amanda Tan. “Visualizing Equity: A Data Science for Social Good Tool and Model for Seattle.” Chicago, Illinois, 2017.

Berry Slater, Josephine, and Anthony Iles. “No Room to Move: Radical Art and the Regenerate City.” Mute, November 24, 2009.

“Better Way Alliance.” Accessed October 1, 2017.

Beyes, Timon, Sophie-Thérèse Krempl, and Kampnagel Internationale Kulturfabrik, eds. Parcitypate: Art and Urban Space. Sulgen: Niggli, 2009.

“Beyond Gentrification: Finding a Balance.” Hudson Valley Pattern for Progress, December 2016.

Binkovitz, Leah. “Third Ward Looks to Shift the Gentrification Conversation.” THE URBAN EDGE, May 25, 2016.

———. “Who’s Really Getting the Benefit? The Impact of Gentrification on Health.” THE URBAN EDGE, September 29, 2017.

Binkovitz, Leah, and via The Urban Edge. “Who Gets Healthier When Neighborhoods Gentrify?” Houston Chronicle, October 3, 2017.

Bishop, Peter, and Lesley Williams. The Temporary City. London ; New York: Routledge, 2012.

Black, Debra. “Meet Toronto’s Disenfranchised Non-Citizens.” The Toronto Star, January 5, 2015, sec. GTA.

Blasius, Jörg, Jürgen Friedrichs, and Heiko Rühl. “Pioneers and Gentrifiers in the Process of Gentrification.” International Journal of Housing Policy 16, no. 1 (January 2, 2016): 50–69.

“Block by Block, Chicago Is Changing. But Is It for the Better?” WBEZ91.5, December 15, 2014.

“Blog.” Akin Collective. Accessed January 6, 2018.

Bloom, Nicholas Dagen. Public Housing That Worked: New York in the Twentieth Century. Reissue edition. Philadelphia: Univ of Pennsylvania Pr, 2009.

Bloom, Nicholas Dagen, and Matthew Gordon Lasner, eds. Affordable Housing in New York: The People, Places, and Policies That Transformed a City. Princeton ; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Bloom, Nicholas Dagen, Fritz Umbach, and Lawrence J. Vale, eds. Public Housing Myths: Perception, Reality, and Social Policy. 1 edition. Ithaca ; London: Cornell University Press, 2015.

Boles, Benjamin. “How Real Estate Trends and Zoning Bylaws Are Threatening Canadian Nightlife.” Thump, September 15, 2016.

Bolt, Gideon. “Diversity in Entrepreneurship.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, April 29, 2016.

———. “Governing Urban Diversity: What Can Policymakers and Civil Society Learn from Divercities?” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, December 15, 2016.

———. “The Assets of Urban Diversity.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, February 26, 2017.

Bolton, Matt. “Is Art to Blame for Gentrification?” The Guardian, August 30, 2013, sec. Opinion.

BondGraham, Darwin. “Plans for a ‘New’ Oakland Are Taking Shape, but Existing Residents Are Demanding More Equitable Development.” East Bay Express, June 21, 2017.

Books, T. E. D., ed. City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There. TED Conferences, 2013.

Borrows, John. Canada’s Indigenous Constitution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2010.

———. Drawing Out Law: A Spirit’s Guide. 2 edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2010.

———. Freedom and Indigenous Constitutionalism. Toronto Buffalo London: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2016.

Borrows, John, and Michael Coyle, eds. The Right Relationship: Reimagining the Implementation of Historical Treaties. Toronto ; Buffalo ; London: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2017.

Borrup, Tom. “Creative Placemaking: Arts and Culture as a Partner in Community Revitalization.” In Fundamentals of Arts Management. University of Massachusetts, 2016.

———. “Creativity in Urban Placemaking: Horizontal Networks and Social Equity in Three Cultural Districts.” Anitoch University, 2015.!etd.send_file?accession=antioch1444733569&disposition=inline.

Boucher, Michael. “The Show Must Go On: Birthing SFU Woodward’s Before and After the 2010 Olympics.” Canadian Theatre Review 164 (September 2015): 72–77.

Bound, Robert. “Are the Arts Responsible for Gentrification?” Culture with Robert Bound. London: Monocle 24, September 26, 2016.

Bourne, Larry S., and David F. Ley. The Changing Social Geography of Canadian Cities. Montreal ; Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1993.

Boushey, Heather, J. Bradford DeLong, and Marshall Steinbaum, eds. After Piketty: The Agenda for Economics and Inequality. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Bousquet, Chris. “Using Mapping to Understand Gentrification, Prevent Displacement.” Government Technology, June 6, 2017.

———. “Where Is Gentrification Happening in Your City?: Using Mapping to Understand Gentrification and Prevent Displacement.” Data-Smart City Solutions, June 5, 2017.

Boykin, Amber E. “B’more Creative: Street Art, Neoliberalism, and Gentrification in East Baltimore.” George Washington University, 2014. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Boyle, Theresa. “St. Michael’s Research Project Analyzes the Overall Health of 140 Toronto Neighbourhoods.” The Toronto Star, February 26, 2014, sec. Life: Health & Wellness.

Bozikovic, Alex. “Jay Pitter Wants to Erase the ‘Spatial Shame’ Surrounding Social Housing.” The Globe and Mail, May 20, 2016.

Brandon, Josh, ed. Poor Housing: A Silent Crisis. Halifax: Fernwood Books Ltd, 2015.

Bratt, Rachel, Michael Stone, and Chester Hartman, eds. A Right to Housing: Foundation for a New Social Agenda. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2006.

Brebbia, C. A., and J. J. Sendra. The Sustainable City XII. WIT Press, 2017.

Brennan, Maya, and Martha Galvez. “Housing as a Platform: Strengthening the Foundation for Well-Being.” Washington, DC: Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, Urban Institute, September 2017.

Brenner, Neil. “Open City or the Right to the City?” In The Right to the City: A Verso Report. Verso Books, 2017.

Brenner, Neil, Peter Marcuse, and Margit Mayer. Cities for People, Not for Profit: Critical Urban Theory and the Right to the City. London: Routledge, 2012.

Bridge, Gary, Tim Butler, and Loretta Lees, eds. Mixed Communities: Gentrification by Stealth? Bristol: Policy Press, 2013.

Brière de la Hosseraye, Marie. ““On the Right, You’ll See What Used to Be Affordable Housing”.” The Link. September 29, 2015.

“Bring on the Hipsters: Gentrification Is Good for the Poor.” The Economist, February 19, 2015.

Brinklow, Adam. “Stanford Paper Says Rent Control Is Driving up Cost of Housing in San Francisco.” Curbed SF, November 3, 2017.

Brooks, Nancy, Kieran Donaghy, and Gerrit Knaap. The Oxford Handbook of Urban Economics and Planning. Oxford Handbooks. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Brown, Jennifer. “Creative Solution to Housing Artisans.” The Toronto Star, March 13, 2010, sec. Homes.

Brown, Kate. “Police Swarm the Volksbühne Theater in Berlin to Remove Anti-Gentrification Art Collective.” artnet News, September 28, 2017.

Brown-Saracino, Japonica. A Neighborhood That Never Changes: Gentrification, Social Preservation, and the Search for Authenticity. Chicago ; London: University Of Chicago Press, 2010.

———. “Explicating Divided Approaches to Gentrification and Growing Income Inequality.” Annual Review of Sociology 43, no. 1 (2017): 515–39.

———. How Places Make Us: Novel LBQ Identities in Four Small Cities. Chicago ; London: University Of Chicago Press, 2017.

———. The Gentrification Debates: A Reader. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Brueckner, Jan K. Lectures on Urban Economics. 49051st edition. Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2011.

Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies. 1 edition. New York London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2016.

Bucerius, Sandra M., Sara K. Thompson, and Luca Berardi. “‘They’re Colonizing My Neighborhood’: (Perceptions of) Social Mix in Canada.” City & Community, October 23, 2017.

Budds, Diana, and Diana Budds. “Gentrifying Cities Are Trying To Save The Art That Made Them Cool.” Co.Design, August 9, 2017.

“Building a Creative Future: A Plan for Culture.” City of Barrie, April 2006.

“Building the Business of Art.” The Globe and Mail, June 3, 2011.

Bula, Frances. “Vancouver Church Partners with Developer on Affordable Housing Project.” The Globe and Mail, November 3, 2017.

Bunce, Susannah. Sustainability Policy, Planning and Gentrification in Cities. 1 edition. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2018.

Buntin, John, and Mark Joseph Stern. “The Myth of Gentrification.” Slate, January 14, 2015.

Bunting, Trudi E., and Pierre Filion. Canadian Cities in Transition: Local through Global Perspectives. 3rd ed. Don Mills, Ont: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Burke, P., and P. Burke. “Pop-Up Art: Performing Creative Disruption in Social Space,” 2016.

“Burlington Cultural Mapping.” Accessed October 13, 2017.

“Business Alliance for Local Living Economies.” BALLE | Business Alliance for Local Living Economies. Accessed October 14, 2017.

Butcher, Melissa, and Luke Dickens. “Spatial Dislocation and Affective Displacement: Youth Perspectives on Gentrification in London.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40, no. 4 (July 2016): 800–816.

Butler, Chris, and Edward Mussawir. Spaces of Justice: Peripheries, Passages, Appropriations. Taylor & Francis, 2017.

Butler, James. Housing: Crisis and Inequality. Novara Media, n.d.

Byers, Jim. “City, Builder Reach Artful Compromise.” The Toronto Star, October 31, 2007, sec. GTA.

Byrne, Ellie, Eva Elliott, and Gareth Howard Williams. “Poor Places, Powerful People? Co-Producing Cultural Counter-Representations of Place.” Visual Methodologies 3, no. 2 (January 12, 2016): 77–85.

Byrne, Monica. “How Do Artists Make a Living? An Ongoing, Almost Impossible Quest.” Ideas.Ted.Com (blog), May 25, 2016.

Byrtus, Nancy, Mark Fram, and Michael McClelland, eds. East/West: A Guide to Where People Live in Downtown Toronto. 1 edition. Toronto: Coach House Books, 1998.

Cairns, Stephen, and Jane M. Jacobs. Buildings Must Die: A Perverse View of Architecture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2014.

Cameron, Stuart, and Jon Coaffee. “Art, Gentrification and Regeneration – From Artist as Pioneer to Public Arts.” International Journal of Housing Policy 5, no. 1 (April 2005): 39–58.

“Can One Make Profit by Predicting Gentrification?” Lion of the Blogosphere (blog), July 21, 2014.

“Canadian Content in a Digital World.” Government of Canada, May 3, 2016.

Cardullo, Paolo, and Rob Kitchin. “Living Labs, Vacancy, and Gentrification,” March 16, 2017.

“Career in Music Is Damaging to Mental Health, New Study Finds.” M Magazine: PRS for Music Online Magazine, October 16, 2017.

“CARFAC Minimum Fee Schedule.” CARFAC (blog). Accessed September 30, 2017.

Carroll, Rory. “Are White Hipsters Hijacking an Anti-Gentrification Fight in Los Angeles?” The Guardian, October 18, 2017, sec. US news.

———. “Hipster-Bashing in California: Angry Residents Fight Back against Gentrification.” The Guardian, July 28, 2017, sec. US news.

Carter, Adam. “Art Crawl Overload: Hamilton’s Crown Jewel Now a Victim of Its Own Success.” CBC News, September 28, 2017.

Cartier, Carolyn. “Contextual Urban Theory and the ‘Appeal’ of Gentrification: Lost in Transposition?” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 41, no. 3 (May 1, 2017): 466–77.

Caruana-Galizia, Paul. “Book Review: Places in Need: The Changing Geography of Poverty by Scott W. Allard.” USAPP (blog), September 17, 2017.

Carvalho, Luís, Leo van den Berg, Hazem Galal, and Peter Teunisse, eds. Delivering Sustainable Competitiveness: Revisiting the Organising Capacity of Cities. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.

Casnady, Ashley. “Toronto’s Rough Moss Park Neighbourhood Becoming the City’s next Gentrification Battleground.” National Post (blog), July 21, 2016.

Castilhos, Rodrigo B., and Pierre-Yann Dolbec. “Conceptualizing Spatial Types: Characteristics, Transitions, and Research Avenues.” Marketing Theory, September 27, 2017, 1470593117732455.

Caton, Hilary. “Photo Series Captures Impact of Gentrification in Parkdale.”, March 9, 2017.

Caulfield, Jon. City Form and Everyday Life: Toronto’s Gentrification and Critical Social Practice. Toronto ; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 1994.

———. “‘Gentrification’ and Desire.” Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie 26, no. 4 (July 14, 2008): 617–32.

“Center for Community Innovation.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Centre for Cities – Think Tank Dedicated to UK City Economies.” Centre for Cities. Accessed October 4, 2017.

CEO, Spencer Rascoff, Zillow, Stan Humphries Chief economist, and Zillow. “Confirmed: Starbucks Knows the next Hot Neighborhood before Everybody Else Does.” Quartz (blog). Accessed August 30, 2017.

“CEOs for Cities.” Accessed October 14, 2017.

Chan, Patrick, and Jamie Sturgeon. “Low- and Middle-Income Families Vanish as Urban Neighbourhoods Gentrify.” Global News, March 18, 2016.

Chang, TC. “‘New Uses Need Old Buildings’: Gentrification Aesthetics and the Arts in Singapore.” Urban Studies 53, no. 3 (March 18, 2014): 524–39.

“Changemaker Profile: The Speakers Bureau – Hamilton Roundtable for Poverty Reduction.” Cities for People, July 9, 2017.

“Changing Nashville Neighbourhoods: The Effect on Nonprofits.” Center for Nonprofit Management (blog), April 18, 2016.

Chapin, Ross. Pocket Neighborhoods: Creating Small-Scale Community in a Large-Scale World. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press, 2011.

Chapple, Karen. “Income Inequality and Urban Displacement: The New Gentrification.” New Labor Forum 26, no. 1 (January 1, 2017): 84–93.

———. “Mapping Susceptibility to Gentrification: The Early Warning Toolkit.” Centre for Community Innovation, University of California, August 2009.

Chapple, Karen, Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris, Paul Waddell, Daniel Chatman, and Paul Ong. “Developing a New Methodology for Analyzing Potential Displacement.” ARB Agreement. California Air Resources Board, April 26, 2017.

Chapple, Karen, and Miriam Zuk. “Forewarned: The Use of Neighborhood Early Warning Systems for Gentrification and Displacement.” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 18, no. 3 (2016): 109–30.

Chaskin, Robert J., and Mark L. Joseph. Integrating the Inner City: The Promise and Perils of Mixed-Income Public Housing Transformation. Reprint edition. University Of Chicago Press, 2017.

———. “‘Positive’ Gentrification, Social Control and the ‘Right to the City’ in Mixed-Income Communities: Uses and Expectations of Space and Place: Mixed-Income Communities and Control of ‘Public’ Space in Chicago.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37, no. 2 (March 2013): 480–502.

Chasnoff, Debra, and Helen Cohen. Homes and Hands: Community Land Trusts in Action. 1 vols. San Francisco, CA: Kanopy Streaming, 2016.

Chen, Crystal. “September 2017 Canadian Rent Report.” Padmapper, September 14, 2017.

Chen, Jie, Mark Stephens, and Yanyun Man, eds. The Future of Public Housing: Ongoing Trends in the East and the West. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2013 edition. Place of publication not identified: Springer, 2016.

Chen, Jieren. “Optimization Is Gentrification.” Thoughts And Ideas (blog), August 10, 2017.

Cherone, Heather. “Anti-Gentrification Plan Moves Forward, But Many Neighborhoods Left Out.” DNAinfo Chicago, September 25, 2017.

Cheung, Adrian. “Restaurant Chain Eyeing Trendy Parkdale Leaves Family-Run Eatery Facing Closure.” CBC News: Toronto, October 2017.

Cheung, Christopher. “Should Developers Meet Quotas for Affordable Housing Units?” The Tyee, January 13, 2017.

Cheung, Michelle. “The Fast Lane to Affordable Housing for One Toronto Resident Is in a Laneway.” CBC News, July 3, 2017.

“Chicago Residents Utilizing Gentrification Index to Identify At-Risk Neighborhoods.” Smart Cities Dive. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Chiose, Simona. “Digitizing Canadian Gentrification and Urban Change in Hamilton.” The Globe and Mail, September 29, 2014.

Chopra, Aneesh. Innovative State: How New Technologies Can Transform Government. 1st edition. New York, NY : Berkeley, Calif.: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2014.

Choptovy, Jordan. “Art as a Method of Revitalization in Post-Katrina New Orleans: Proposal for Artist Relocation Program.” Sotheby’s Institute of Art, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Choudary, Sangeet Paul. Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires with Minimum Investment. First Edition edition. Boston? Platform Thinking Labs, 2015.

Christensen, Julia. No Home in a Homeland: Indigenous Peoples and Homelessness in the Canadian North. Vancouver ; Toronto: UBC Press, 2017.

Christensen, Miyase, and Tindra Thor. “The Reciprocal City: Performing Solidarity—Mediating Space through Street Art and Graffiti.” International Communication Gazette 79, no. 6–7 (November 1, 2017): 584–612.

Christensen, Sarah. “Utilizing Google Street View To Track Gentrification In The Beasley Neighbourhood, Hamilton, Ontario.” McMaster University, 2016.

“Cities for People – Collaborative Experiments in Making Cities Better.” Cities for People. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“Cities for People, Not for Profit.” Cities for People, Not for Profit: Gentrification and Housing Activism in Bushwick, NY. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“City of Burlington Cultural Action Plan: Directions Forward Report.” City of Burlington, Cobalt Connects, March 2013.

“City of Markham Culture Policy & Plan 2012.” City of Markham, 2012.

“City of Peterborough Municipal Cultural Plan.” City of Peterborough, 2012.$!2c+Culture+$!26+Heritage/Peterborough+Municipal+Culture+Plan-+FINAL.pdf.pdf.

CityLab, Ryan Briggs. “‘Gentrification’ May Be Re-Segregating American Communities.” Business Insider. Accessed August 30, 2017.

“CityMetric.” CityMetric. Accessed October 4, 2017.

“Cityscape.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Civic Analytics: Housing.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

Clapp, Edward P. Participatory Creativity: Introducing Access and Equity to the Creative Classroom. New York, NY: Routledge, 2016.

Clark, Patrick. “Self-Driving Cars Will Unlock Buildable Space, Reshape Housing Market.” The Toronto Star, October 17, 2017, sec. Business.

“Clear-Cutting the City: The Impact of Gentrification on Homelessness, Affordability and Liveability (Lunch and Learn).” Ryerson University. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Cleaver, Harry. Rupturing the Dialectic: The Struggle against Work, Money, and Financialization. Chico, CA: AK Press, 2017.

Coemans, Sara, Qingchun Wang, Joyce Leysen, and Karin Hannes. “The Use of Arts-Based Methods in Community-Based Research with Vulnerable Populations: Protocol for a Scoping Review.” International Journal of Educational Research 71 (2015): 33–39.

Coffey, David. “50 Years of Gentrification.” Bosley Real Estate (blog), May 17, 2017.

Cohen, Boyd, and Pablo Muñoz. The Emergence of the Urban Entrepreneur: How the Growth of Cities and the Sharing Economy Are Driving a New Breed of Innovators. Praeger, 2016.

Cohn, Martin Regg. “Why Business and Banks Hate the Minimum Wage.” The Toronto Star, September 30, 2017, sec. Queen’s Park.

Collectif, Matthieu Giroud, Marie Chabrol, Anaïs Collet, Lydie Launay, Max Rousseau, and Hovig Ter Minassian. Gentrifications. Paris: Amsterdam, 2016.

“Community Arts Stabilization Trust.” CAST – Community Arts Stabilization Trust. Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Community Land Trust.” Community Land Trust. Accessed October 3, 2017.

“Community Land Trusts (CLTs).”, June 21, 2012.

“Community Properties Impact Corporation: The Weinland Park Collaborative.” Accessed September 28, 2017.

“Community Tool Box.” Community Tool Box. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Corriston, Brennan, McKayla Dunfey, Ka Lum Fung, and Yi Zhong. “Analyzing Risk of Displacement & Affordable Housing Opportunities in Southwest Boston.” Tufts University, Spring 2017.

Cortright, Joe. “In Defense of Gentrification.” The Atlantic, October 31, 2015.

———. “Why Does It Cost So Much to Build ‘Affordable’ Housing?” CityLab, October 19, 2017.

Craggs, Samantha. “Gentrification Hits Tax Bills for People in Hamilton’s Lower City: This Sort of Increase Has Historically Happened in Areas like Waterdown, but Now Downtown Is a Destination.” CBC News, February 28, 2017, sec. Hamilton.

———. “The Battle for Hamilton’s Beach Front: Locals vs. Toronto Developers: The City Is Trying to Fend off Developments That Cram as Many Units as Possible onto Single-Family Lots.” CBC News, June 15, 2016, sec. Hamilton.

Crawshaw, Julie. “Working Together: Tracing the Making of Public Art as Part of Regeneration Practice.” Anthropological Journal of European Cultures 24, no. 2 (January 1, 2015).

“Create NYC: A Cultural Plan for All New Yorkers.” New York: NYC Cultural Affairs, July 2017.

“Creating and Preserving Affordable Housing through a Construction Impact Tax.” Philadelphia Coalition for Affordable Communities, 2017.

“Creative Canada Policy Framework.” Government of Canada: Canadian Heritage, September 26, 2017.

“Creative Capital Gains: An Action Plan for Toronto.” City of Toronto, May 2011.

“Creative Cities Network.” UNESCO. Accessed November 1, 2017.

“Creative Placemaking Issue.” Community Development Investment Review 10, no. 2 (2014).

“Creative Places & Businesses: Catalyzing Growth in Communities.” New York: Upstart Co-Lab, March 2017.

“Creative Tensions: Optimising the Benefits of Culture through Regeneration.” London, UK: London Assembly: Regeneration Committee, March 2017.

“Creative Together: A Cultural Plan for the City of Vaughan.” City of Vaughan, AuthentiCity, May 2010.

Crehan, Kate. Gramsci’s Common Sense: Inequality and Its Narratives. Durham: Duke University Press Books, 2016.

Cronin, J. Keri (Jennifer Keri), Kirsty Robertson, and Ebrary – York University. Imagining Resistance: Visual Culture and Activism in Canada. Cultural Studies Series (Waterloo, Ont.). Waterloo, Ont: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011.

Culkin, Brian Francis, and James Pasto. There Is No Such Thing as Boston: Gentrification and the Disappearance of a City. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017.

“Cultural Action Plan.” City of Burlington, Community Services Committee, November 4, 2013.

Cultural Economy Futures: A Symposium. Southbank, Australia: Culture Media Economy Monash University, 2017.

“Cultural Mapping Toolkit.” 2010 Legacies Now, Creative City Network of Canada. Accessed October 13, 2017.

“Cultural Plan 2016-2021.” Town of Oakville, 2016.

“Cultural Planning.” Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. Accessed October 13, 2017.

“Cultural Planning Toolkit.” Vancouver: 2010 Legacies Now, Creative City Network of Canada. Accessed October 13, 2017.

“Cultural Prosperity Plan.” City of London, 2013.

“Cultural Resource Mapping: A Guide for Municipalities.” Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated, 2010.

“Culture Counts: Oshawa Arts, Culture & Heritage Plan.” City of Oshawa, February 2014.

“Culture Plan for the Creative City.” City of Toronto, 2003.

“Culture Plan Progress Report II.” City of Toronto, 2008.

“Culture Urban Future: Global Report on Culture for Sustainable Urban Development.” Paris (France): UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2016.

“CultureBlocks.Com.” Accessed September 24, 2017.

Cunningham, Caitlin. “Conflicted Commons: A Local Makerspace in the Neoliberal City.” Theses and Dissertations, January 1, 2017.

Curran, Winifred. Gender and Gentrification. 1 edition. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

———. “In Defense of Old Industrial Spaces: Manufacturing, Creativity and Innovation in Williamsburg, Brooklyn: Manufacturing, Creativity and Innovation in Williamsburg, Brooklyn.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 34, no. 4 (December 2010): 871–85.

Curren, Ryan, Nora Liu, Dwayne Marsh, and Kalima Rose. “Equitable Development as a Tool to Advance Racial Equity.” Government Alliance on Race & Equity, September 2015.

Currid, Elizabeth. “Bohemia as Subculture; ‘Bohemia’ as Industry: Art, Culture, and Economic Development.” Journal of Planning Literature 23, no. 4 (May 2009): 368–82.

Cuthbertson, Debbie. “Arts for the Dole? Greens Propose Living Wage for Creatives as Part of Election Policy.” The Sydney Morning Herald, June 8, 2016.

Daniel, Vesta A. H. “Community-Based Art and Gentrification: A Bronzeville Story.” Informática Na Educação: Teoria & Prática 19, no. 1 (June 2, 2016).

Daniels, Serena Maria. “Chicago Community Replies to Gentrification With Inclusive Arts Space.” Next City (blog), September 19, 2017.

Dastrup, Samuel, Ingrid Ellen, Anna Jefferson, Max Wesselcouch, Deena Schwartz, and Karen Cuenca. “The Effects of Neighborhood Change on New York City Housing Authority Residents.” Bethesda, MD: Abt Associates, May 21, 2015.

Daubs, Katie. “City and Suburbs: Six Decades of Unity and Division.” The Toronto Star, December 20, 2014, sec. GTA.

Davey, Melissa. “Gentrification, Street Art and the Rise of the Developer-Sponsored Block Party.” The Guardian, October 4, 2017, sec. Australia news.

Davidson, Mark, and Loretta Lees. “New-Build ‘Gentrification’ and London’s Riverside Renaissance.” Environment and Planning A 37, no. 7 (July 2005): 1165–90.

Davies, Beth. “‘Second Tier Cool’: Residents’ Experiences of a Mid-Size City’s Gentrifying Downtown.” University of Waterloo. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Davies, Marion, Juliet Davis, and Debra Rapp. Dispersal: Picturing Urban Change in East London. S.l.: Historic England Publishing, 2017.

Davis, Ben. “Are Artists to Blame for Gentrification?” Slate, October 15, 2013.

Davis, Erin. “Are Laneway Suites a Solution to Toronto’s Housing Crisis?” Torontoist, July 5, 2017.

———. “In Sanitizing Toronto of Its Grit, Are We Washing Away Its Character?” Torontoist (blog), May 15, 2017.

———. “Reimagined Spaces Benefit Toronto Artists, Communities, and Developers.” Torontoist, November 6, 2017.

Davis, John Emmeus, and Rick Jacobus. “The City–CLT Partnership: Municipal Support for Community Land Trusts.” Policy Focus Report. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2008.

De Cesari, Chiara, and Rozita Dimova. “Heritage and Gentrification: Introduction: Remaking Urban Landscapes in the Name of Culture and Historic Preservation.” International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2017.

De Costa, Joshua. “Protesters March Notre-Dame Street to Push Back Against Gentrification.” The Link. October 30, 2016.

“Decent Work for Youth.” Accessed October 1, 2017.

Decottignies, Michele. “Disability Arts and Equity in Canada.” Canadian Theatre Review 165 (January 2016): 43–47.

Deener, Andrew, and Jonathan Wynn. “Gentrification? Bring It.” The Conversation, October 10, 2017.

Delgadillo, Natalie. “The Neighborhood That Went to War Against Gentrifiers.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Delmelle, Elizabeth. “In Recent Decades, the Clustering of Rich and Poor Neighborhoods in America Has Continued, Expanding Inequality.” LSE US Centre, United States Politics and Policy (blog), October 4, 2017.

“Denver Adopts $150 Million Affordable Housing Fund.” Accessed October 5, 2017.

Deschamps, Tara. “The Artist’s View of Toronto’s Divided City.” The Toronto Star, May 9, 2015, sec. GTA.

Deserti, Alessandro. “Design and the Transformation of Cities.” In Human Smart Cities, 63–79. Urban and Landscape Perspectives. Springer, Cham, 2016.

Desmond, Matthew. Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City. New York: Crown, 2016.

Deto, Ryan. “Land Trust Will Help Low-Income Residents Purchase Homes in Lawrenceville.” Pittsburgh City Paper. January 20, 2016.

———. “Lawrenceville Breaks Ground on Pittsburgh’s First Community Land Trust.” Pittsburgh City Paper. July 6, 2017, sec. Community Action / Housing.

Deutsche, Rosalyn, and Cara Gendel Ryan. “The Fine Art of Gentrification.” October 31 (1984): 91.

“Development Without Displacement: Keeping Communities Strong.” Philadelphia Coalition for Affordable Communities, Spring 2015.

DeVerteuil, Geoffrey. “Book Review: Planetary Gentrification by Loretta Lees, Hyun Bang Shin and Ernesto López-Morales.” USAPP (blog), October 30, 2016.

Dhillon, Jaskiran K. Prairie Rising: Indigenous Youth, Decolonization, and the Politics of Intervention. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2017.

Diappi, Lidia, ed. Emergent Phenomena in Housing Markets: Gentrification, Housing Search, Polarization. 2013 edition. Place of publication not identified: Physica, 2014.

“Die Projektdokumentation und der Kurzfilm der Viertelexpedition sind online.” Folkwang LAB Wir sind Nachbarn. Accessed January 20, 2018.

Digg. “The Most Unaffordable Housing Markets In North America, Charted.” Accessed October 28, 2017.

Dinca-Panaitescu, Mihaela, and Alan Walks. “Income Inequality, Income Polarization, and Poverty: How Are They Different? How Are They Measured?” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. Toronto: United Way Toronto/York Region and University of Toronto, December 2015.

Dineen, J. K. “SF Legislation Aims to Save Cultural Enclaves from Gentrification.” Laredo Morning Times, October 24, 2017.

Ding, Lei, and Jackelyn Hwang. “The Consequences of Gentrification: A Focus on Residents’ Financial Health in Philadelphia,” Working Paper No 16-22:38. Working Papers Research Department. Philadelphia: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, 2016.

“‘Displacement Is Not Beautiful’: Critics Slam Real Estate Developer’s Art Exhibition.” CBC News. Accessed October 25, 2017.

“Dispossession: The Great Social Housing Swindle.” Accessed October 2, 2017.

“DIVERCITIES – Governing Urban Diversity.” Accessed November 5, 2017.

“Divided City/United City: The Series so Far.” The Toronto Star, December 15, 2014, sec. GTA.

Dixon, Guy. “Arts and Real Estate – a Winning Mix Artscape Is Exporting to B.C.” The Globe and Mail, May 25, 2015.

Dmitrieva, Katia. “Even Real Estate Developers Can’t Afford Toronto’s Housing Market.” Bloomberg.Com, November 17, 2017.

Doan, Petra L. Planning and LGBTQ Communities: The Need for Inclusive Queer Spaces. New York, NY : Routledge, 2015.

Dobbins, James. “Making a Living With Airbnb.” The New York Times, April 7, 2017, sec. Real Estate.

Doberstein, Carey. Building a Collaborative Advantage: Network Governance and Homelessness Policy-Making in Canada. S.l.: UBC Press, 2017.

Doherty, Brennan. “Michael Redhill Had $411 in the Bank before Depositing $100,000 Giller Prize Cheque.” The Toronto Star, November 23, 2017, sec. Books.

Dombrowski, Rebecca. “The Opposite Of Gentrification.” The Odyssey Online, July 5, 2016.

Dongen, Matthew Van. “HAMILTON BUDGET: Councillors Reject ‘Living Wage’ Hike for Part-Time Workers.” The Hamilton Spectator, March 25, 2017, sec. News-Local.

Donish, Cassandra Joy. “Geographies of Art and Urban Change: Contesting Gentrification through Aesthetic Encounters in San Francisco’s Mission District – ProQuest.” University of Oregon, 2013. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Doolittle, Robyn. “Dundas-Sherbourne Poised for a Surprising Rebirth.” The Toronto Star, April 22, 2011, sec. GTA.

Dorling, Danny. “The New Urban Crisis by Richard Florida Review – ‘Flawed and Elitist Ideas.’” The Observer, September 26, 2017, sec. Books.

Doucet, Bill. “Art$Pay Website Helps Waterloo Region Artists Get a Fair Price.”, January 12, 2017.

Dovey, Rachel. “$27.5 Million Goes to Detroit Neighborhoods for Equitable Development,” September 18, 2017.

———. “Boston to Help Affordable Housing Developers Rethink Vacant Lots.” Next City (blog), October 3, 2017.

———. “Detroit Has a New Tool for Fighting Gentrification’s Displacement.” Next City (blog), September 25, 2017.

———. “Three Ways Detroit’s Housing Picture Is Changing,” July 27, 2017.

Dragicevic, Nevena, and Sara Ditta. “Community Benefits and Social Procurement Policies: A Jurisdictional Review.” The Prosperous Province: Strategies for Building Community Wealth. Mowat Centre and Atkinson Foundation, May 2016.

Dragicevic, Nina. “Gentrification as Rejuvenation: How Toronto Is Different.” Toronto Storeys, March 13, 2017.

Dragin, Burt. “A New Model for Paying Musicians a Living Wage?” East Bay Express. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Drake, Michael S. “Art Squats, Artistic Critique and Resistance: Between Recuperation and Obliteration.” Prace Kulturoznawcze, no. 19 (2016): 41–58.

Dreyfuss, Emily. “The Year in Housing: The Middle Class Can’t Afford to Live in Cities Anymore.” WIRED, December 31, 2016.

Duany, Andres, Jeff Speck, and Mike Lydon. The Smart Growth Manual. 1 edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009.

Dubb, Steve. “DC Adopts Community Land Trust Approach to Avert Further Gentrification.” Nonprofit Quarterly (blog), October 2, 2017.

Durrett, Charles. The Senior Cohousing Handbook-2nd Edition: A Community Approach to Independent Living. 2 edition. Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 2009.

Durrett, Charles, and Kathryn McCamant. Creating Cohousing: Building Sustainable Communities. Gabriola Island, B.C: New Society Publishers, 2011.

Duxbury, Nancy, Anita Kangas, and Christiaan De Beukelaer. “Cultural Policies for Sustainable Development: Four Strategic Paths.” International Journal of Cultural Policy 23, no. 2 (March 4, 2017): 214–30.

Dyson, Lauren. Beyond Transparency: Open Data and the Future of Civic Innovation. Edited by Brett Goldstein. 1 edition. San Francisco: Code for America Press, 2013.

Eastburn, Susanna. “The Future of New Music Is at Risk If We Continue to Undervalue Composers.” The Guardian, August 18, 2014, sec. Culture professionals network.

Eastwood, Joel. “Map: 40 Years of Growing Income Inequality in Toronto.” The Toronto Star, November 28, 2014, sec. Projects.–40-years-of-growing-income-inequality.html.

Echenique, Martín. “A Map to Find the Hipster Neighborhoods in Any City.” CityLab. Accessed August 31, 2017.

editor, Kay S. Hymowitz is a City Journal contributing, the William E. Simon Fellow at the Manhattan Institute, and the author of The New Brooklyn: What It Takes to Bring a City Back. “Destroying the Neighborhood to Save It.” City Journal (blog), October 10, 2017.

“Editorial: Students Can Help Fight Gentrification.” The Link. October 31, 2016.

Editors, Scientific American. Designing the Urban Future: Smart Cities. Scientific American, 2014.

Edlund, Lena, Cecilia Machado, and Michaela Sviatchi. “Bright Minds, Big Rent: Gentrification and the Rising Returns to Skill.” NBER Working Paper Series. Cambridge, MA: Federal Bureau of Economic Research, November 2015.

Edwards, Samantha. “No Place Like Home.” Maisonneuve, January 22, 2016.

Ehrenhalt, Alan. “The Problem With the Second Phase of Gentrification.” KCET, October 26, 2017.

El Kalach, Sirine, Abigail Moriah, and Melissa Tapper. “Gentrification and Displacement: Community Responses & Policy Options – An Inventory of Case Examples of Neighbourhood Initiatives.” Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, July 2005.

“Election Toolkit: A Guide for Nonprofits to Meaningfully Engage in Elections.” Ontario Nonprofit Network, January 2018.

Ellard, Colin. Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life. New York: Bellevue Literary Press, 2015.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Lei Ding. “Advancing Our Understanding of Gentrification.” Cityscape 18, no. 3 (September 1, 2016): 3.

Ellen, Ingrid Gould, and Katherine O’Regan. “Gentrification: Perspectives of Economists and Planners,” December 15, 2011.

Ellse, Mark. “National Living Wage Spells Death for the Arts.” The Conservative Woman, November 21, 2016.

Elmquist, Dana. “House Poor: How a Drive for Stability Led to a Strategic Rethinking of Cultural Institutions’ Relationship to Their Space.” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 42, no. 4 (October 1, 2012): 189–204.

“Embedded, Embedding: Artist Residencies, Urban Placemaking and Social Practice.” The New School. Accessed October 15, 2017.

“Enabling Culture to Thrive in Oakville: Oakville’s Strategic Directions for Culture.” Town of Oakville, 2009.

“Engaging Spaces, Engaged Audiences: The Socio-Spatial Context of Cultural Experiences in Art Galleries and Art Museums – ProQuest.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Ensuring Equitable Neighborhood Change: Gentrification Pressures on Housing Affordability.” Insights into Housing and Community Development Policy. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, December 2016.

“Enterprise Awards New York City $1.65 Million to Support the Formation and Expansion of Community Land Trusts.” NYC Housing Preservation & Development (blog), July 19, 2017.

“Environmental Scan of the Culture Sector: Ontario Culture Strategy Background Document.” Communications MDR. Accessed July 2, 2017.

Environmental Studies, and Scott, Dayna N. Unsettling Revitalization in Toronto: The Fantasy and Apology of the Settler City. York University, 2017.

“Equinox Studios.” Accessed January 17, 2018.

“Equitable Development Assembly.” Kheprw Institute: Community Empowerment through Self Mastery (blog), December 30, 2016.

“Equitable Development Implementation Plan.” Seattle Office of Planning & Community Development, April 2016.

“Equitable Development Toolkit.” PolicyLink. Accessed October 14, 2017.

Evans, Amy. “Looking at Places Through Artists’ Eyes.” Shelterforce (blog), January 19, 2017.

Evans, David S., and Richard Schmalensee. Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press, 2016.

Evans, Graeme, and Phyllida Shaw. “Literature Review: Culture and Regeneration.” Arts Reserach Digest 37, no. Summer 2006 (n.d.).

“Evidence-Based Policymaking Collaborative.” Evidence-Based Policymaking Collaborative. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Exploring Our Town.” National Endowment for the Arts. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Faife, Corin. “The Safe Way to Build a Smart City.” CityLab (blog), October 2, 2017.

“Fair Pay for Artists.” NAVA. Accessed September 30, 2017.

“Fairbnb.” Fairbnb. Accessed October 3, 2017.

famille, L’Institut Vanier de la. “Employment Mobility and Family Gentrification in Montreal.” The Vanier Institute of the Family, April 25, 2017.

Fayyad, Abdallah. “The Criminalization of Gentrifying Neighborhoods.” The Atlantic, December 20, 2017.

Febria, Monina. “We Can All Be Allies for Creating Decent Work.” ONN (blog), April 12, 2017.

Ferguson, Lisa. “Queen West Super Hub Proposal Aims to Create ‘Some Magic’ in Parkdale.” NOW Magazine, October 5, 2017.

Fern, Joyce. “Taking Back the Front Porch: Using Art to Reclaim Community Identity.” Shelterforce (blog), August 9, 2017.

Fernandez, Kirsten Bernas and Lynne. “A Living Wage Lifts Workers and Economy.” Winnipeg Free Press, 01:00:00 CDT, sec. Analysis.

Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada,Volume One: Summary: Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future. Toronto: Lorimer, 2015.

Finance, Personal, and Mortgages & Real Estate. “Leaving the City (and the Big Mortgage) Behind.” Financial Post (blog), March 29, 2014.

Fish, Susan. “Moving toward Decent Work: How Changing Employment Standards Are Impacting the Nonprofit Sector,” August 23, 2017.

Fisher, Mark. Capitalist Realism: Is There No Alternative? John Hunt Publishing, 2009.

Flack, Derek. “Toronto Is Finally Ready to Embrace Laneway Housing.” BlogTO (blog), June 2017.

Flaxman, Kathy. “Garage Becomes a Working Art Studio.” The Toronto Star, May 27, 2017, sec. Homes.

———. “Guelph a Preferred Option over Toronto.” The Toronto Star, March 12, 2016, sec. Homes.

Fleming, David. “Who Is Moving Outside Toronto, And Why?” Toronto Realty Blog (blog), December 7, 2016.

Florida, Richard. Atlas of Cities. Edited by Paul Knox. With a Foreword by Richard Flo ed. edition. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2014.

———. Cities and the Creative Class. 1 edition. New York: Routledge, 2004.

———. “Gentrification and the Persistence of Poor Minority Neighborhoods.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “How Data Is Actually Changing Our Knowledge of Cities.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “Is Your Neighborhood Changing? It Might Be Youthification, Not Gentrification.” CityLab. Accessed October 5, 2017.

———. The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. 1 edition. New York: HarperBusiness, 2007.

———. The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2011.

———. The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class—and What We Can Do About It. 1 edition. New York: Basic Books, 2017.

———. The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life. First Trade Paper Edition edition. North Melbourne, Vic.: Basic Books, 2003.

———. The Rise of the Creative Class–Revisited: Revised and Expanded. First Trade Paper Edition edition. New York: Basic Books, 2014.

———. “Toronto Is a Divided City. Here’s How to Repair It.” The Toronto Star, November 29, 2014, sec. Commentary.

———. Who’s Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life. Canadian edition. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2009.

Florida, Richard L., Charlotta Mellander, Canadian Electronic Library – York University, and Joseph L. Rotman School of Management: Martin Prosperity Institute. There Goes the Neighbourhood: How and Why Bohemians, Artists and Gays Affect Regional Housing Values. Canadian Electronic Library. Toronto, Ont.]: Martin Prosperity Institute, 2007.

Flowers, Margaret, and Kevin Zeese. “Reducing the Weath Divide Through ‘Economic Democracy.’” Truthdig: Expert Reporting, Current News, Provocative Columnists, November 5, 2017.

Flynn, Andrea, Susan R. Holmberg, Dorian T. Warren, and Felicia J. Wong. The Hidden Rules of Race: Barriers to an Inclusive Economy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Foer, Franklin. World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech. New York: Penguin Press, 2017.

Ford, Martin. Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future. Reprint edition. New York: Basic Books, 2016.

Formoso, Diana, Rachel N. Weber, and Marc S. Atkins. “Gentrification and Urban Children’s Well-Being: Tipping the Scales from Problems to Promise.” American Journal of Community Psychology 46, no. 3–4 (December 2010): 395–412.

Foster, Dawn. “Even Hipsters and Artists Should Be Afraid of Gentrification.” The Guardian, May 13, 2016, sec. Housing Network.

Foster, Nicole, Carl Grodach, and James Murdoch. “Neighborhood Diversity, Economic Health, and The Role of the Arts.” Journal of Urban Affairs 38, no. 5 (December 2016): 623–42.

Foth, Marcus, Martin Brynskov, and Timo Ojala, eds. Citizen’s Right to the Digital City: Urban Interfaces, Activism, and Placemaking. 1st ed. 2015 edition. Springer, 2015.

Francis, Anna. “‘Artwashing’ Gentrification Is a Problem – but Vilifying the Artists Involved Is Not the Answer.” The Conversation (blog), October 5, 2017.

Frank, Adam. “What Does It Take To See Gentrification Before It Happens?”, August 29, 2017.

Frank, Sarah. “Creativity Needs a Home.” MyKawartha.Com (blog), August 16, 2013.

Frankfurt, Harry G. On Inequality. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2015.

Franz, Yvonne. Gentrification in Neighbourhood Development. Place of publication not identified: Routledge, 2017.

Frase, Peter. Four Futures: Life After Capitalism. London: Verso, 2016.

Freeman, Bill, and Christopher Hume. The New Urban Agenda: The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area. Toronto: Dundurn, 2015.

Freeman, Lance. “Displacement or Succession?: Residential Mobility in Gentrifying Neighborhoods.” Urban Affairs Review 40, no. 4 (March 1, 2005): 463–91.

———. “Five Myths about Gentrification.” The Washington Post, June 3, 2016, sec. Opinions.

———. There Goes the Hood: Views of Gentrification from the Ground Up. Philadelphia, Pa: Temple University Press, 2006.

Freeman, Lance, and Frank Braconi. “Gentrification and Displacement New York City in the 1990s.” Journal of the American Planning Association 70, no. 1 (March 31, 2004): 39–52.

Freeman, Lance, Adele Cassola, and Tiancheng Cai. “Displacement and Gentrification in England and Wales: A Quasi-Experimental Approach.” Urban Studies 53, no. 13 (October 2016): 2797–2814.

Freeman, Lena. “Creative Placemaking: Towards and Evaluative Framework,” June 7, 2016.

Fritsch, Kelly, Clare O’Connor, and A. K. Thompson, eds. Keywords for Radicals: The Contested Vocabulary of Late-Capitalist Struggle. Oakland, CA: AK Press, 2016.

“From the Ground Up: Growing Toronto’s Cultural Sector.” City of Toronto, 2011.

Fung, Joseph. “Joseph Fung on Why Tech Leaders Should Care about Gentrification in Kitchener.” Communitech News (blog), October 16, 2015.

“Future Trends: Big Data Analysis Urban Development.” Startling Brands Berlin – Strategic Corporate Branding Firm (blog), April 15, 2016.

Gainza, Xabier. “Culture-Led Neighbourhood Transformations beyond the Revitalisation/Gentrification Dichotomy.” Urban Studies 54, no. 4 (March 2017): 953–70.

Galbraith, James K. Inequality: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Galley, Andrew. “Community Benefits Agreements.” The Prosperous Province: Strategies for Building Community Wealth. Mowat Centre and Atkinson Foundation. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Garcia, Marirosa. “Irrigate Toolkit.” Sprinboard for the Arts, City of Saint Paul, Twin Cities Local Initiatives Support Corporation, January 22, 2016.

Garrett, Bradley L. “These Squares Are Our Squares: Be Angry about the Privatisation of Public Space.” The Guardian, July 25, 2017, sec. Cities.

Garrova, Robert. “In Los Angeles, Mariachi Musicians Fight Gentrification to Keep Tradition Alive.” Marketplace, September 15, 2017.

Gauthier-Caron, Jérémie. “Hochelaga Pushes Back to Those Pushing In.” The Link. May 12, 2017.

Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén, and Gillian Parekh. “Market ‘Choices’ or Structured Pathways? How Specialized Arts Education Contributes to the Reproduction of Inequality.” Education Policy Analysis Archives 25 (April 24, 2017): 41.

“GCI Invests $1 Million to Establish Denver’s First Collective Impact Workforce Platform.” Gary Community Investments (blog). Accessed October 7, 2017.

Gee, Marcus. “Thanks to Gentrification, My Slum Is Now on the Leading Edge of Cool.” The Globe and Mail, April 25, 2011.

———. “The Unexpected Merits of Toronto’s Condo Boom.” The Globe and Mail, May 11, 2012.

Gehl, Jan. Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. 6 edition. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2011.

Gehl, Jan, and Lord Richard Rogers. Cities for People. First Edition edition. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2010.

“Generation Squeeze.” Generation Squeeze. Accessed September 28, 2017.

“Gentrificatio & Neighbourhood Change: Helpful Tools for Communities: A Supplement to The Socioeconomic Change of Chicago’s Community Areas (1970-2010).” University of Illinois at Chicago: Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement, College of Urban Planning & Public Affairs, March 2015.

“Gentrification.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Gentrification & Student Housing.”, July 4, 2016.

“Gentrification Analytics: GovHack Hackerspace 2017.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Gentrification and Displacement in Toronto’s Downtown East.” The Media Co-Op (blog), November 13, 2015.

“Gentrification and the North: Culture Injection, City Protection.” Northern Policy Institute, August 6, 2014.

“Gentrification Explained.” Urban Displacement Project. Accessed December 6, 2017.

“Gentrification Guilt Meter – Living Los Sures.” Gentrification Guilt Meter. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“Gentrification: Help or Harm?” The Agenda with Steve Paikin. TVO, April 1, 2014.

“Gentrification in City Neighborhoods, Its Causes and Effects.” Accessed October 7, 2017.

Gentrification Is Not Just an Urban Issue. Accessed November 1, 2017.

“Gentrification (k)NOT Project.” Gentrification (k)NOT Project. Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Gentrification Must Be Managed to Protect Culture in Capital.” ArtsProfessional, March 7, 2017.

“Gentrification Report Methodology.” Governing the States and Localities. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Gentrification Study: Balancing Revitalization, Reducing Displacement.” Denver Office of Economic Development, May 2016.

“Gentrification Study: Mitigating Involuntary Displacement.” Denver Office of Economic Development, May 2016.

“Gentrification Takes More East London Street Art Walls.” Jenikya’s Blog (blog), October 2, 2017.

“Gentrification.Tech.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

Geoghegan, Peter. “Blame It on the Bike: Does Cycling Contribute to a City’s Gentrification?” The Guardian, October 5, 2016, sec. Cities.

“GEOLOOM Co>map.” Accessed September 24, 2017.

“GEOLOOM Co>map : Cultural Mapping – A Handbook for Developing a Creative Placemaking Tool.” BNIA: Baltimore Neighbourhood Indicators Alliance, July 2017.

Gerhard, Ulrike, Michael Hölscher, and David Wilson, eds. Inequalities in Creative Cities: Issues, Approaches, Comparisons. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

Gibson, D. W. The Edge Becomes the Center: An Oral History of Gentrification in the Twenty-First Century. Reprint edition. Overlook Books, 2016.

Gibson-Graham, J. K. A Postcapitalist Politics. 1 edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

———. The End Of Capitalism (As We Knew It): A Feminist Critique of Political Economy. 1st University of Minnesota Press Ed., 2006 edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

Gibson-Graham, J. K., Jenny Cameron, and Stephen Healy. Take Back the Economy: An Ethical Guide for Transforming Our Communities. Minneapolis ; London: University of Minnesota Press, 2013.

Gignac, Julien. “Queen West Artists Stand against Demolition of Studio Space.” The Toronto Star, October 29, 2017, sec. GTA.

Gilbert, Sky. “Gentrification and Hamilton Artists.” Hamilton Fringe Festival (blog), July 5, 2017.

Gill, Martha. “For Generation Rent, This Housing Crisis Is Far from Over.” The Guardian, February 15, 2018.

Gillespie, Dave. “The New Hamiltonians.” Toronto Life (blog), June 21, 2017.

Gillis, Alex. “Cities as a Commons: Sharing Vision, Resources and Power.” Cities for People, May 4, 2017.

Glaeser, Edward, Joshua Gottlieb, and Kristina Tobio. “Housing Booms and City Centers.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2012.

Glazer, Lou, Carol Coletta, Dan Burden, Dr Joe VanderMeulen, Mark Clevey, John Norquist, Multiple Authors, Peter Kageyama, and Dan Gilmartin. The Economics of Place: The Value of Building Communities Around People. Michigan Municipal League, 2016.

Gleaser, Edward L., and Joseph Gyourko. Rethinking Federal Housing Policy: How to Make Housing Plentiful and Affordable. Washington, D.C: Aei Press, 2008.

Glow, Hilary, Katya Johanson, and Anne Kershaw. “‘More Yuppy Stuff Coming Soon’: Gentrification, Cultural Policy, Social Inclusion and the Arts.” Continuum 28, no. 4 (July 4, 2014): 495–508.

Goldberg-Miller, Shoshanah B.D., and Joe E. Heimlich. “Creatives’ Expectations: The Role of Supercreatives in Cultural District Development.” Cities 62 (February 2017): 120–30.

Goldberg-Mota, Zachary. “Housing Fair Discusses Resisting Gentrification.” The Link. May 19, 2015.

Goldsmith, Stephen, and Susan Crawford. The Responsive City: Engaging Communities Through Data-Smart Governance. 1 edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2014.

Goldstein, Brian D. The Roots of Urban Renaissance: Gentrification and the Struggle over Harlem. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Gomer, Justin. “‘The Rent Eats First’: Fighting Gentrification in California.” Black Perspectives (blog), May 2, 2017.

Gonzalez, Saul. “Change the Name of the Arts District to the Luxury District.” There Goes the Neighborhood. Accessed October 20, 2017.

Gordon, Aaron. “Out-of-Control Gentrification Is Helping Create NYC’s Subway Crush.” The Village Voice. September 13, 2017.

Gornick, Janet, and Markus Jäntti, eds. Income Inequality: Economic Disparities and the Middle Class in Affluent Countries. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Gorski, Eric. “Why We’re Taking a Closer Look at How Gentrification Is Changing Schools — and How You Can Help.” Chalkbeat (blog), September 20, 2016.

Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. “CANSIM – 051-0065 – Interprovincial and Intraprovincial Migrants, by Census Metropolitan Area of Origin and Destination for the Period from July 1 to June 30,” August 29, 2017.

Graham, Karen. “Using Algorithms to Predict Gentrification and Fight Displacement.” Digital Journal, August 17, 2017.

Graham, Stephen. Vertical: The City from Satellites to Bunkers. London ; New York: Verso, 2016.

Graser, Dina. “Community Benefits in Practice and in Policy: Lessons from the United States and the United Kingdom.” Atkinson Foundation, September 2016.

Gravari-Barbas, Maria, and Sandra Guinand, eds. Tourism and Gentrification in Contemporary Metropolises: International Perspectives. 1 edition. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Gravel, Ryan. Where We Want to Live: Reclaiming Infrastructure for a New Generation of Cities. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2016.

Graves, Jen. “How Artists Can Fight Back Against Cities That Are Taking Advantage of Them.” The Stranger. Accessed November 17, 2017.

Green, David A., W. Craig Riddell, and France St-Hilaire. Income Inequality: The Canadian Story. Montreal, Quebec: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 2016.

Green, Jared. “Ending ‘Code Talk’ About Gentrification.” Huffington Post (blog), November 17, 2016.

Green, Josh. “How Gentrification Really Changes a Neighborhood.” Atlanta Magazine, March 2016.

Greene, Solomon, and Kathryn L.S. Pettit. “What If Cities Used Data to Drive Inclusive Neighborhood Change?” Urban Institute. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Greenfield, Adam. Against the Smart City. 1.3 edition. Do projects, 2013.

———. Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life. London ; New York: Verso, 2017.

Greenwood, Margo, Sarah de Leeuw, Nicole Marie Lindsay, and Charlotte Reading, eds. Determinants of Indigenous Peoples’ Health in Canada: Beyond the Social. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc., 2015.

Grey Ellis, Emma. “Tech’s Diversity and Gentrification Problems Start at Home—With Those Fancy Campuses.” WIRED, February 18, 2017.

Griffin, Anna. “Portland Study Targets Neighborhoods next up for Gentrification.” The Oregonian, June 22, 2013.

“GRIN – Gentrification and Politics. Political Measures against Gentrification Using the Example of Graz and Hamburg.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

Grodach, C., N. Foster, and J. Murdoch. “Gentrification, Displacement and the Arts: Untangling the Relationship between Arts Industries and Place Change.” Urban Studies, December 6, 2016.

Grodach, Carl. “Art Spaces in Community and Economic Development: Connections to Neighborhoods, Artists, and the Cultural Economy.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 31, no. 1 (March 1, 2011): 74–85.

———. “Art Spaces, Public Space, and the Link to Community Development.” Community Development Journal 45, no. 4 (October 1, 2010): 474–93.

———. “Arts, Gentrification, and Planning for Creativity.” Carolina Planning Journal 41 (2016): 22–29.

———. “Museums as Urban Catalysts: The Role of Urban Design in Flagship Cultural Development.” Journal of Urban Design 13, no. 2 (June 1, 2008): 195–212.

———. “Urban Cultural Policy and Creative City Making.” Cities 68 (August 2017): 82–91.

Grodach, Carl, Elizabeth Currid-Halkett, Nicole Foster, and James Murdoch. “The Location Patterns of Artistic Clusters: A Metro- and Neighborhood-Level Analysis.” Urban Studies 51, no. 13 (October 1, 2014): 2822–43.

Grodach, Carl, Nicole Foster, and James Murdoch. “Gentrification and the Artistic Dividend: The Role of the Arts in Neighborhood Change.” Journal of the American Planning Association 80, no. 1 (January 2, 2014): 21–35.

Grodach, Carl, James Murdoch, and Nicole Foster. “Arts Industries Do Not Cause Gentrification- They Tend to Chase It.” USAPP (blog), February 14, 2017.

Grodach, Carl, Justin O’Connor, and Chris Gibson. “Manufacturing and Cultural Production: Towards a Progressive Policy Agenda for the Cultural Economy.” City, Culture and Society 10 (September 2017): 17–25.

“Grounded Solutions Network.” Grounded Solutions Network. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Grounded Solutions Network: 2017 Impact Report.” issu, 2017.

“Grounded Solutions Network: What About Housing?” issuu, October 1, 2017.

“Growing Tourism Together: Strategic Framework for Tourism in Ontario.” Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport, June 2016.

Grube-Cavers, Annelise, and Zachary Patterson. “In Order to Keep Mass Transit Accessible, We Must Understand the Relationship between Gentrification and Public Transportation.” USAPP (blog), May 1, 2014.

Gu, Peiqin. “Governance and Gentrification in Creative Industry Clusters – A Case Study of Three Creative Clusters in Beijing,” 2014.

Gualtieri, Anthony Angelo. “Creative Inequality: Development, Gentrification and Contestation in the New Ward 8.” American University. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Guénette, Vincent Geloso, Jasmin. “Gentrification Helps Everyone, Be It in St-Henri, HoMa or Elsewhere.” IEDM, July 28, 2016.

———. “Viewpoint – The Widespread Benefits of Gentrification.” IEDM, July 28, 2016.

Guerrieri, Veronica, Daniel Hartley, and Erik Hurst. “Endogenous Gentrification and Housing Price Dynamics.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2010.

Guinard, Pauline, and Antonin Margier. “Art as a New Urban Norm: Between Normalization of the City through Art and Normalization of Art through the City in Montreal and Johannesburg.” Cities, June 2017.

“Habitat III.” Habitat III. Accessed October 13, 2017.

Hackworth, Jason, and Josephine Rekers. “Ethnic Identity, Place Marketing, and Gentrification in Toronto.” Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, April 2005.

———. “Ethnic Packaging and Gentrification: The Case of Four Neighborhoods in Toronto.” Urban Affairs Review 41, no. 2 (November 2005): 211–36.

Hae, Laam. The Gentrification of Nightlife and the Right to the City: Regulating Spaces of Social Dancing in New York. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Hains, David. “How Property Taxes Work.” Torontoist, January 9, 2014.

———. “Mapping Where Torontonians Bike and Run.” Torontoist, February 2, 2015.

Hall, Horace R., Cynthia Cole Robinson, and Amor Kohli, eds. Uprooting Urban America: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Race, Class and Gentrification. 1 edition. New York: Peter Lang Inc., International Academic Publishers, 2014.

“Halton Hills Cultural Master Plan.” Peter J. Smith & Company, July 2013.

Hamdouch, Abdelillah, Torill Nyseth, Christophe Demaziere, Anniken Førde, José Serrano, and Nils Aarsæther, eds. Creative Approaches to Planning and Local Development: Insights from Small and Medium-Sized Towns in Europe. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.

“Hamilton Music Strategy.” City of Hamilton, August 31, 2015.

“Hamilton Tenant Solidarity Network.” Accessed October 5, 2017.

Hamnett, Chris, and Drew Whitelegg. “Loft Conversion and Gentrification in London: From Industrial to Postindustrial Land Use.” Environment and Planning A 39, no. 1 (January 2007): 106–24.

Hancox, Dan. “Gentrification X: How an Academic Argument Became the People’s Protest.” The Guardian, January 12, 2016, sec. Cities.

Hanhardt, Christina B. Safe Space: Gay Neighborhood History and the Politics of Violence. Perverse Modernities. London : Duke University Press, 2013.

Hannigan, John, and Greg Richards. The SAGE Handbook of New Urban Studies. SAGE Publications Inc, 2017.

Hansen, Høgni Kalsø, and Thomas Niedomysl. “Migration of the Creative Class: Evidence from Sweden.” Journal of Economic Geography 9, no. 2 (March 1, 2009): 191–206.

Harriot, Michael. “The White People Are Coming! 6 Signs Your Neighborhood Is Being Gentrified.” The Root. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Harris, Andrew. “Art and Gentrification: Pursuing the Urban Pastoral in Hoxton, London: Art and Gentrification.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 37, no. 2 (April 2012): 226–41.

Harris, John. “The Bristol Conundrum: ‘Gentrification Is a Danger – and If You’re Poor, You’re Really, Really Stretched’.” The Guardian, November 5, 2015, sec. Cities.

Harris, Miriam. “London’s Studio Crisis – Is a New Design District the Answer?” Digital Arts, October 10, 2017.

Harris, Richard, Jim Dunn, and Sarah Wakefield. “A City on the Cusp: Neighbourhood Change in Hamilton since 1970.” Toronto: University of Toronto, 2014.

Hartley, Scott. The Fuzzy and the Techie: Why the Liberal Arts Will Rule the Digital World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017.

Harvie, Jen, and Palgrave Theatre E-books – York University. Fair Play: Art, Performance and Neoliberalism. Performance Interventions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Hawkins, Harriet. “Dialogues and Doings: Sketching the Relationships Between Geography and Art: Dialogues and Doings.” Geography Compass 5, no. 7 (July 2011): 464–78.

Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of Toronto. Paperback edition. edition. Vancouver etc.: Douglas & McIntyre, 2009.

Hays, R. Allen. Neighborhood Change and Neighborhood Action: The Struggle to Create Neighborhoods That Serve Human Needs. Lexington Books, 2018.

“Health Effects of Gentrification.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, August 21, 2013.

“Hearn Generating Station – Luminato.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

Heinemann, William, and Jason Hickel. The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions. London: William Heinemann, 2017.

Helbrecht, Ilse, ed. Gentrification and Resistance. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2018.

Helmore, Edward. “Detroit Redefined: City Hires America’s First Official ‘Chief Storyteller.’” The Guardian, September 5, 2017, sec. Cities.

Henig, Jeffrey R., Carolyn J. Riehl, David M. Houston, Michael A. Rebell, and Jessica R. Wolff. “Collective Impact and the New Generation of Cross-Sector Collaborations for Education: A Nationwide Scan.” New York: Columbia University, Wallace Foundation, March 2016.

Henley, Jon. “The Stuff of Night Mayors: Amsterdam Pioneers New Way to Run Cities after Dark.” The Guardian, March 21, 2016, sec. Cities.

“HERE TO STAY: A Community Forum on Gentrification Driven Displacement in Parkdale.” Parkdale Neigbourhood Land Trut. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Herman, Bernease, Gundula Proksch, Rachel Berney, Hillary Dawkins, Jacob Kovacs, Yahui Ma, Jacob Rich, and Amanda Tan. “Data Science for Urban Equity: Making Gentrification an Accessible Topic for Data Scientists, Policymakers, and the Community.” ArXiv:1710.02447 [Cs], October 6, 2017.

Hern, Catherine, and ez · CBC Arts · January 31. “The Little Spaces That Could: How Independent Theatre Companies Are Building Community.” CBC, January 31, 2018.

Hern, Matt. What a City Is For: Remaking the Politics of Displacement. 1 edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2016.

Hijazi, Jennifer. “Who Fights for Public Art in the Face of Gentrification?” PBS NewsHour, December 28, 2017.

Hill, Dave. “London Gentrification: Cliches and Conundrums (and Hipsters).” The Guardian, December 18, 2016, sec. UK news.

———. “Regeneration – or Pushing out the Poor? Labour Divides in Bitter Housing Battle.” The Observer, October 28, 2017, sec. Society.

Hill, Kelly. “Mapping Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada’s Large Cities: A Study Prepared for the City of Vancouver, the City of Calgary, the City of Toronto, the City of Otawa, and the Ville de Montréal Based on 2006 Census Data.” Hamilton: Hill Strategies Research, February 2010.

Hodge, Gerald, and David Gordon. Planning Canadian Communities. 6 edition. Toronto: Nelson College Indigenous, 2013.

Holeywell, Ryan. “You Might Not Know as Much About Gentrification as You Think.” The Urban Edge, June 6, 2016.

“Home.” CulturalDC. Accessed January 17, 2018.

Horak, Martin. “Understanding Neighbourhood Revitalization in Toronto.” Montreal, 2010.

Hou, Jeffrey, ed. Transcultural Cities: Border-Crossing and Placemaking. 1 edition. Routledge, 2013.

“Housing & Homelessness Action Plan.” City of Hamilton, December 2013.

“Housing for All Seattle.” Housing for All Seattle. Accessed October 18, 2017.

“Housing Impact Fees: A New Strategy to Keep Communities Strong.” Philadelphia Coalition for Affordable Communities, 2016.

“Housing Roundtable.” United Workers. Accessed October 13, 2017.

“How Can Cities Make Space for Culture?” World Cities Culture Forum: News (blog), August 9, 2017.

How Do You Build Affordable Housing? Accessed November 1, 2017.

“How Housing Matters.” How Housing Matters. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“How the Cost of Housing Is Even Impacting Durham’s Dogs.” Herald Sun. Accessed November 1, 2017.

“How to Deal with Overtourism, Gentrification, Sharing Economy: Solutions.” Sustainability Leaders Project (blog), September 29, 2017.

How to Do Creative Placemaking. Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, 2017.

“How to Fight Gentrification’s Real Culprit, Political Privilege.” PanAmPost, March 20, 2017.

Howard, Tanner. “Gentrifier Is a Positive Step Forward in the Gentrification Debate.” Chicago Reader, October 9, 2017, sec. Arts & Culture, Lit Feature.

Howell, Mike. “Vancouver Adopts Living Wage of $20.62.” Vancouver Courier. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Hubbard, Phil. The Battle for the High Street: Retail Gentrification, Class and Disgust. 1st ed. 2017 edition. London, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.

———. “Whose High Street? Class and Disgust in Visions of Town Centre Regeneration.” Accessed October 6, 2017.

“HUDUser.Gov.” U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development – Office of Policy Development and Researc. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Hughes, Dorothy. I’m Just Saying… It Looks Like Ethnic Cleansing. Jacksonville, FL: Dph Book Publishing, 2012.

Hughes, James. Early Intervention: How Canada’s Social Programs Can Work Better, Save Lives, and Often Save Money. Toronto: Lorimer, 2015.

Hulchanski, J. David. “The Three Cities Within Toronto: Income Polarization Among Toronto’s Neighbourhoods, 1970-2005.” Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto, 2010.

Hume, Christopher. “Condo Culture Doesn’t Have to Be an Oxymoron: Hume.” The Toronto Star, April 3, 2015, sec. Life.

———. “Hume: New Cultural Centre Breathes Life and Colour into Regent Park.” The Toronto Star, September 17, 2012, sec. GTA.

———. “Urban Revival  Balances Past and Present.” The Toronto Star, November 20, 2008, sec. GTA.

Hunt, Shauna. “How Parkdale Is Surviving Gentrification.” 680 NEWS, March 21, 2017.

Huston, Simon, ed. Smart Urban Regeneration: Visions, Institutions and Mechanisms for Real Estate. 1 edition. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Hutton, Thomas A., John Paul Catungal, Deborah Leslie, and Yvonne Hii. “Geographies of Displacement in the Creative City: The Case of Liberty Village, Toronto.” Urban Studies 46, no. 5–6 (May 1, 2009): 1095–1114.

Huws, Ursula. Labor in the Global Digital Economy: The Cybertariat Comes of Age. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2014.

Hwang, Jackelyn. “Immigration Is an Important Dimension in How We Understand Gentrification across US Cities.” USAPP (blog), October 21, 2015.

———. “Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.” Demography 53, no. 1 (February 1, 2016): 189–213.

Hwang, Jackelyn, and Jeffrey Lin. “What Have We Learned About the Causes of Recent Gentrification?” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 18, no. 3 (2016): 9–26.

Hwang, Jackelyn, and Robert Sampson. “Google Street View Shows That Gentrification in Chicago Has Largely Bypassed Poor Minority Neighborhoods, Reinforcing Urban Inequality.” USAPP (blog), July 9, 2014.

Hyckie, Meaghan. “Lessons in Affordable Housing from Wartime Suburbia.” NOW Magazine, November 1, 2017.

Hyde, Zachary. “Vancouver Mural Festival Is Caught up in Gentrification.” The Mainlander (blog), October 5, 2016.

“ILO Meeting of Experts Makes Progress on Precarious Work.” International Arts and Entertainment Alliance, March 28, 2015.

“I’m the Last Man Standing in My Rent-Controlled Apartment Building.” Architectural Digest. Accessed October 6, 2017.

“Indianapolis Gentrification Maps and Data.” Governing the States and Localities. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Indianapolis Revitalizing Neighborhoods Through Arts & Culture.” Meeting of the Minds, August 9, 2017.

“Inequality Is Already Transforming Neighbourhoods in Canada’s Biggest Cities.” PressProgress (blog), July 12, 2016.

“Inspire St. Catherines: Cultural Plan 2020.” City of St. Catharines, Lord Cultural Resources, February 18, 2015.

“Inspire Thunder Bay Culture Plan.” Office for Urbanism, AuthentiCity, April 2011.

Institute, Kinder. “Gentrification Apps; Police Reform; and Micro-Apartments: Urban Insights From Around The Web.” THE URBAN EDGE, April 15, 2016.

“Institute of Urban Dreaming Research.” Accessed November 11, 2017.

“Interactive Map: Portland Neighborhoods at Risk of Gentrification.” The Oregonian. Accessed September 28, 2017.

IUD, IUD-john Co-founder of. “Conference Recordings – Art Practices & The Housing Crisis.” Institute of Urban Dreaming (blog), December 17, 2016.

Ivanova, Iglika, Pamela Reaño, and Seth Klein. “Working for a Living Wage: Making Paid Work Meet Basic Family Needs in Metro Vancouver.” Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, April 26, 2017.

Jackson, Adam. “GenNext Group Tackles Gentrification.”, October 4, 2016.

Jackson, Tim. “The Future of Jobs: Is Decent Work for All a Pipe Dream?” The Guardian, August 15, 2017, sec. Global Development Professionals Network.

Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life. 1st Vintage Books ed edition. New York: Vintage, 1985.

———. Dark Age Ahead. Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2005.

———. Jane Jacobs: The Last Interview: And Other Conversations. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2016.

———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. 1REV edition. New York: Vintage, 1992.

———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage, 1970.

———. The Nature of Economies. Vintage Canada, 2010.

———. Vital Little Plans: The Short Works of Jane Jacobs. Edited by Samuel Zipp and Nathan Storring. Random House Canada, 2016.

Jacobs, Karrie. “The High Line Network Tackles Gentrification.” Architect, October 16, 2017.

Jacobs, Michael, and Mariana Mazzucato, eds. Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth. 1 edition. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.

Jaeger, Ann. “A Space for Us.” Electric City Magazine, May 2, 2017.

———. “Downtown Revitalization: A Failure of Imagination.” Electric City Magazine, October 4, 2016.

James, Ryan K. “Urban Redevelopment and Displacement from Regent Park to El Cartucho.” Canadian Theatre Review 161 (January 2015): 17–21.

Janes, Julia, Canadian Electronic Library (Firm), Canadian Electronic Library – York University, and University of Toronto: Institute for Life Course and Aging,. Mapping Aging in Place in a Changing Neighbourhood. Canadian Electronic Library. Beaconsfield, Quebec: Canadian Electronic Library, 2008.

Javed, Noor. “Are We a Divided City? Experts Weigh In.” The Toronto Star, December 4, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Regent Park Gets Millions for Arts Centre.” The Toronto Star, December 17, 2009, sec. GTA.

Jeffri, Joan. “Making Money: Real Estate Strategies for the Arts.” Journal of Arts Management and Law 12, no. 3 (September 1, 1982): 32–50.

Johar, Indy. “Re-Making Urban Renewal.” Dark Matter Laboratories, December 1, 2017.

John, Brandon. “How Many Streams Does a Band Need Just to Earn Minimum Wage?” Tone Deaf (blog), August 1, 2017.

Johnson, Laura, and Robert Johnson. Regent Park Redux: Reinventing Public Housing in Canada. 1 edition. New York, NY: Routledge, 2017.

Jones, Alasdair. “Orchestrated Public Space: The Curatorial Dimensions of the Transformation of London’s Southbank Centre.” In Mediations: Art & Design Agency and Participation in Public Space, Conference Proceedings, edited by Saba Golchehr, Rosa Ainley, Adrian Friend, Kathy Johns, and Karolina Raczynska, 244–57. London, UK: Royal College of Art, 2016.

Jones, Chris. “Should the Minimum Wage Apply to the Arts?” Chicago Tribune, November 14, 2014.

Jones, Craig E., and David Ley. “Transit-Oriented Development and Gentrification along Metro Vancouver’s Low-Income SkyTrain Corridor: Transit-Oriented Development.” The Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien 60, no. 1 (March 2016): 9–22.

Jones, Jonathan. “Artwashing: The New Watchword for Anti-Gentrification Protesters.” The Guardian, July 18, 2016, sec. Art and design.

Jones, Michal. “3 Signs That Gentrification Is Coming to Your Neighborhood – Salon.Com.” Salon (blog), September 22, 2017.

Jones, Susan. “Artists’ Low Income and Status Are International Issues.” The Guardian, January 12, 2015, sec. Culture professionals network.

———. “By Paying Artists Nothing, We Risk Severing the Pipeline of UK Talent.” The Guardian, May 19, 2014, sec. Culture professionals network.

———. “Creating Positive Action to Support Unrecognised Female Artists.” The Guardian, May 6, 2016, sec. Culture professionals network.

———. “How Should We Support Creativity?” The Guardian, February 5, 2016, sec. Culture professionals network.

Joseph-Lester, Jaspar. “Representing the City: Can Art Projects Re-Figure and Challenge Urban Futures?” Oxford, UK: Oxford University, 2016.

Juhnke, Sebastian. “The Allure of Diversity, Creativity and Space: Gentrification and Multiculture in London and Berlin.” University of Manchester, August 2015.

Justin, Meyer. “Art Museums and Their Connection to Neighborhood Change: A Case Study of the Portland Art Museum in Oregon.” University of Michigan, 2016.

Kaemmerling, Astrid. “Walking the Gentrifying Streetscape: Artistic Practice in San Francisco’s Mission District (2006-2016).” Ohio University, 2016.

Kahne, Juliet. “Does Placemaking Cause Gentrification? It’s Complicated.” Project for Public Spaces (blog), November 3, 2015.

Kale, Sirin. “Why Millennials Are Moving to Lisbon.” The Independent, September 26, 2017.

Kalinowski, Tess. “Hamilton Is Having Its Moment: But the Days of a Cheap, Two-Storey Victorian May Be Gone.” The Toronto Star, September 3, 2016.

———. “Housing Plan Won’t Help Middle Class, Experts Say.” The Toronto Star, November 22, 2017, sec. GTA.

———. “How Toronto’s Housing Costs Are Hampering the City’s Ability to Attract Talent.” The Toronto Star, November 1, 2017, sec. Real Estate.

———. “Make Toronto Housing Denser, Say Young Professionals.” The Toronto Star, November 8, 2017, sec. Real Estate.

———. “The Great Real-Estate Data Debate.” The Toronto Star, December 22, 2017, sec. Business.

Kana, Koichi. “An Experiment in Urban Regeneration Using Culture and Art in Senba, Osaka’s Historic Urban Center, with a Focus on the Regeneration of Urban Space.” City, Culture and Society 3, no. 2 (June 2012): 151–63.

Kane, Laura. “‘We See Suicidal Seniors’: B.C. Housing Crisis Forcing Elderly into the Streets.” CTV News, December 17, 2017.

Karacostas, Chase. “University Faculty to Conduct City-Wide Gentrification Study – The Daily Texan.” The Daily Texan. October 4, 2017.

Kasparov, Garry, and Mig Greengard. Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins. 1 edition. New York: PublicAffairs, 2017.

Katsarov, Christopher. “Toronto Arts Hub Fights for Right to Occupy Condo Space.” The Globe and Mail, December 20, 2017, sec. News: Toronto.

Kaysen, Ronda. “Artists and Their Muse: Gentrification.” The New York Times, December 2, 2016, sec. Real Estate.

———. “Fined for Using Airbnb; Scheduling Open Houses.” The New York Times, August 30, 2014, sec. Real Estate.

Kayyali, Dia. “Big Data and Hidden Cameras Are Emerging as Dangerous Weapons in the Gentrification Wars — Quartz,” August 23, 2016.

Kayzar, Brenda. “Ephemeral Conciliation: Community-Based Art and Redevelopment.” Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers 78, no. 1 (September 14, 2016): 28–46.

Keatinge, Brenna. “How Gentrifiers Are Fighting to Reshape Working Class Neighborhoods in Their Own Image.” USAPP (blog), May 3, 2016.

Keatinge, Brenna, and Deborah G Martin. “A ‘Bedford Falls’ Kind of Place: Neighbourhood Branding and Commercial Revitalisation in Processes of Gentrification in Toronto, Ontario.” Urban Studies 53, no. 5 (April 1, 2016): 867–83.

Keesmaat, Jennifer. “Jennifer Keesmaat: It’s Time to Rethink Canada’s Housing System – Macleans.Ca,” December 13, 2017.

Kelly, Kevin. The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future. Reprint edition. New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2017.

Kelly, Marjorie, and Sarah McKinley. “7 Paths to Development That Bring Neighborhoods Wealth, Not Gentrification.” YES! Magazine, November 11, 2015.

Kempen, Ronald van. “Governance Arrangements and Initiatives: Utilising Urban Diversity to Create Positive Outcoems.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, August 22, 2014.

———. “Governing Diversity.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, February 28, 2014.

———. “Hyper-Diversity: A New Perspective on Urban Diversity.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, September 13, 2013.

———. “Living with Diversity.” Policy Brief. European Policy Brief. DIVERCITIES: Governing Urban Diversity, July 31, 2015.

Kennedy, Maureen, and Paul Leonard. “Dealing with Neighbourhood Change: A Primer on Gentrification and Policy Choices.” Brooking Institution Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy and PolicyLink, April 2001.

“Kensington Market Tenants Reeling over Rent Hikes up to 50%.” Metro News, August 9, 2016.

Kent, Ethan. “Placemaking Week 2017: Building a Global Agenda for Open Cities Through Place-Led Development.” Project for Public Spaces (blog), September 6, 2017.

Kershaw, Paul. “Pushing Back on Skyrocketing Housing Prices in Toronto.” Torontoist, March 9, 2017.

Keung, Nicholas. “Ryerson Study Highlights Severe Lack of Visible Minorities on Corporate Boards.” The Toronto Star. October 4, 2017.

Khafagy, Amir. “Gentrification on Steroids — Amazon Is Coming to a City Near You.” The Indypendent (blog), September 28, 2017.

Khandaker, Tamara. “Ryerson Bridging Divides Event Builds on Star Series.” The Toronto Star, April 24, 2015, sec. GTA.

King, Robin Levinson. “The Hidden Pockets in Toronto Where Gentrification Is Really Happening.” The Toronto Star, September 13, 2016, sec. GTA.

King, Thomas. The Inconvenient Indian: A Curious Account of Native People in North America. Anchor Canada, 2013.

“Kingston Culture Plan.” City of Kingston, 2010.

Kinniburgh, Colin. “How to Stop Gentrification.” The New Republic, August 9, 2017.

Kitchin, Rob. The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences. 1 edition. Los Angeles, California: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2014.

Klein, Gabe, and David Vega-Barachowitz. Start-Up City: Inspiring Private and Public Entrepreneurship, Getting Projects Done, and Having Fun. Washington ; Covelo ; London: Island Press, 2015.

Klein, Michelle. “Coffee and Gentrification.” The McGill International Review (blog), March 1, 2017.

Klingbeil, Cailynn. “Toronto Eyes New Tax Class That Could Spell Relief for Small Businesses.” The Globe and Mail, October 31, 2017.

Kluge, Alexander, Oskar Negt, and Miriam Hansen. Public Sphere and Experience: Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere. Reprint edition. London New York: Verso, 2016.

Klyton, Aaron C. van. “Space and Place in World Music Production.” City, Culture and Society 6, no. 4 (December 2015): 101–8.

Knauf, Ana Sofia. “Two Artists Are Giving Out ‘Gentrification Citations’ To Local Businesses, Including Uncle Ike’s.” The Stranger, September 7, 2016.

Kochan, Thomas A., and Lee Dyer. Shaping the Future of Work: A Handbook for Action and a New Social Contract. S.l.: MITxPress, 2017.

Kochel, Jay. “Small, Medium and National: Capital Art Cultures.” Art Monthly Australia, no. 294 (November 2016): 16.

Kolson Hurley, Amanda. “Will U.S. Cities Design Their Way Out of the Affordable Housing Crisis?” Next City (blog), January 18, 2016.

Kopun, Francine. “Cross-City Tour Reveals What Divides and Unites Toronto’s Neighbourhoods.” The Toronto Star, December 15, 2014, sec. GTA.

Kosut, Mary. “‘We Are the Scene’: Alternative Art Economies in Bushwick.” Metropolitics (blog), September 13, 2016.

Kozey, Kathryn Noe. “Collective Efficacy, Threat, and Urban Change: Examining Social Control Forces in Areas of Gentrification,” 2015.

Kramer, Michaela. “The Hamilton Arts Community Is Changing Neighbourhood Planning – Cities for People.” Cities For People (blog), August 7, 2014.

Krase, Jerome. Seeing Cities Change: Local Culture and Class. Urban Anthropology Series. Farnham: Ashgate, 2012.

Kretzmann, John P. Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets. Evanston, Ill.: Acta Pubns, 2006.

Kroth, Maya. “Santa Mari La Juaricua, Patron Saint of Anti-Gentrification.” CityLab, October 2, 2017.

———. “Victims of Gentrification, Meet Your Patron Saint.” CityLab. Accessed October 3, 2017.

Kuka, Andrew. “Community Land Trusts: A Help or Hindrance to Community Development in the United States.” Stevenson Center for Community and Economic Development, Illinois State University, 2017.

Kukoski, Mary Alice. “The Affordable Housing Crisis — a Form of White Supremacy.” The Cavalier Daily, University of Virginia (blog), September 20, 2017.

Kwon, Yoonku, Shinha Joo, Soyoung Han, and Chan Park. “Mapping the Distribution Pattern of Gentrification near Urban Parks in the Case of Gyeongui Line Forest Park, Seoul, Korea.” Sustainability 9, no. 2 (February 9, 2017): 231.

La Grange, Adrienne, and Frederik Pretorius. “State-Led Gentrification in Hong Kong.” Urban Studies 53, no. 3 (January 8, 2014): 506–23.

“L.A. Mayor’s Affordable Housing Tool Put on Hold.” Accessed October 5, 2017.

Ladendorf, Tom. “The Group of Artists That’s Winning Fair Pay By Targeting Nonprofits.” In These Times, January 26, 2016.

Lagendijk, Arnoud, Rianne van Melik, Freek de Haan, Huib Ernste, Huub Ploegmakers, and Serap Kayasu. “Comparative Approaches to Gentrification: A Research Framework: Comparative Approaches to Gentrification: A Research Framework.” Tijdschrift Voor Economische En Sociale Geografie 105, no. 3 (July 2014): 358–65.

Lalande, Lisa. “We Need to Talk About Decent Work.” ONN (blog), November 25, 2015.

“Land Trusts: Local Community Solutions.” The Ontario Association of Landscape Architects, July 13, 2016.

“Lanescape: Toronto Laneway Housing Building Initiative.” Lanescape. Accessed September 28, 2017.

“Laneway Suites.” Evergreen. Accessed September 28, 2017.

“Laneway Suites: A New Housing Typology for Toronto.” Lanescape and Evergreen, May 26, 2017.

Langegger, Sig. “Right-of-Way Gentrification: Conflict, Commodification and Cosmopolitanism.” Urban Studies 53, no. 9 (May 1, 2015): 1803–21.

———. Rights to Public Space: Law, Culture, and Gentrification in the American West. 1st ed. 2017 edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Larsen, Sara M. Public Housing: Background and Issues. UK ed. edition. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Pub Inc, 2011.

Larson, Sam R., James W. Dearing, and Thomas E. Backer. “Strategies to Scale Up Social Programs.” Diffusion Associates, September 2017.

Larsson, Naomi. “The Final Bar? How Gentrification Threatens America’s Music Cities.” The Guardian, July 6, 2017, sec. Cities.

Lathrop, Daniel, and Laurel Ruma. Open Government: Collaboration, Transparency, and Participation in Practice. 1 edition. Beijing ; Cambridge Mass.: O’Reilly Media, 2010.

Latifi, Fortesa. “Tempe Neighborhood Struggles to Hold onto Its Identity, Resist Gentrification.” The State Press. October 4, 2017.

Lauster, Nathanael. The Death and Life of the Single-Family House: Lessons from Vancouver on Building a Livable City. 1 edition. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2016.

Lavanga, Mariangela. “Artists in Urban Regeneration Processes : Use and Abuse?” Territoire en mouvement Revue de géographie et aménagement. Territory in movement Journal of geography and planning, no. 17–18 (March 1, 2013): 6–19.

Lawrence-Zúñiga, Denise. Protecting Suburban America: Gentrification, Advocacy and the Historic Imaginary. London ; Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2016.

“Learn More About City Rising.” KCET, April 20, 2017.

“Learnings from The City as a Commons Series.” Cities for People, May 3, 2017.

Leavy, Patricia. Method Meets Art, Second Edition: Arts-Based Research Practice. 2 edition. New York ; London: The Guilford Press, 2015.

Leblanc, Dave. “Artscape Youngplace: Creative Spirit Haunts the Halls of Shaw Street School.” The Globe and Mail, September 30, 2015.

LeBlanc, Dave. “In Constant Exile, Artists Seek next Colony,” November 21, 2008, sec. news.

Lee, Jann. “Millennials Can’t Afford Toronto Living. Is It Worth Braving the GTA Commute?” The Hamilton Spectator, October 30, 2015, sec. News-Ontario.

Lee, Sarah, Peter Linett, Nicole Baltazar, and Joanna Woronkowicz. “Setting the Stage for Community Change: Reflecting on Creative Placemaking Outcomes.” Slover Linett Audience Research, Mortimer & Mimi Levitt Foundation, November 2016.

Lees, Loretta. “Staying Put: An Anit-Gentrification Handbook for Council Estates in London.” London Tenants Federation, Just Space, Southwark Notes Archive Group, June 2014.

Lees, Loretta, and Clare Melhuish. “Arts-Led Regeneration in the UK: The Rhetoric and the Evidence on Urban Social Inclusion.” European Urban and Regional Studies 22, no. 3 (July 2015): 242–60.

Lees, Loretta, Hyun Bang Shin, and Ernesto LÃ3pez-Morales. Planetary Gentrification. Cambridge, UK : Malden, MA: Polity, 2016.

Lees, Loretta, Hyun Bang Shin, and Ernesto López Morales. Global Gentrifications: Uneven Development and Displacement. Bristol, UK : Policy Press, 2015.

Lees, Loretta, Tom Slater, and Elvin Wyly. Gentrification. 1 edition. New York, NY: Routledge, 2007.

———, eds. The Gentrification Reader. 1 edition. London ; New York: Routledge, 2010.

Lehrer, Ute, and Thorben Wieditz. “Condominium Development and Gentrification: The Relationship Between Policies, Building Activities and Socio-Economic Development in Toronto – ProQuest.” Canadian Journal of Urban Research 18, no. 1 (September 2009): Supplement pages 140-161.

Leonhardt, Andrea. “Arts East NY to Present Art and Anti-Gentrification Workshop At…” The Brooklyn Reader, October 10, 2017.

Les, Loretta. “Anti-Gentrification Law – Could It Work in the UK?” LexisPSL, November 2, 2016.

Leung, Linda. “The Creative Other: Marginalization of and from the Creative Industries.” The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 46, no. 4 (August 7, 2016): 200–211.

Levin, Sam. “‘It’s Not for Me’: How San Francisco’s Bike-Share Scheme Became a Symbol of Gentrification.” The Guardian, August 21, 2017, sec. US news.

———. “She Fought for Her Community as a Black Panther. Will Gentrification Force Her Out?” The Guardian, December 12, 2017, sec. US news.

Levine, Allan. Toronto: Biography of a City. Madeira Park, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2014.

Levy, David, Jennifer Comey, and Sandra Padilla. “In the Face of Gentrification: Case Studies of Local Efforts to Mitigate Displacement.” Washington: The Urban Institute, Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, 2006.

Levy, Diane K., Jennifer Comey, and Sandra Padilla. “Keeping the Neighborhood Affordable: A Handbook of Housing Strategies for Gentrifying Areas.” Washington, DC: Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, Urban Institute, 2006.

Lewington, Jennifer. “School’s out – and Reinvented Spaces Are in.” The Globe and Mail, November 18, 2013.

Lewis, Barbara. “Introduction: The Gentrification Game.” Trotter Review 23, no. 1 (September 22, 2016).

Ley, David. “Alternative Explanations for Inner-City Gentrification: A Canadian Assessment.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 76, no. 4 (December 1986): 521–35.

———. “Artists, Aestheticisation and the Field of Gentrification.” Urban Studies 40, no. 12 (November 2003): 2527–44.

Ley, David, and Nicholas Lynch. “Vancouver, 1970-2005: Divisions and Disparities in Lotus-Land: Socio-Spatial Income Polarization in Greater Vancouver, 1970-2005.” Toronto: University of Toronto, August 2012.

Lick, Thomas Philip. “The Paradoxical Nature of Gentrification in Long Beach’s Gayborhood.” KCET, September 27, 2017.

Lieber, Marylène. “From ‘Territories’ to City Centers: The Ambivalent Management of Women’s Safety and Gentrification.” French Politics, December 6, 2017.

Ligaya, Armina. “Toronto Housing Affordability Hits Worst Level Ever Measured in City, RBC Report Says.” The Toronto Star, September 29, 2017, sec. Real Estate.

Little, Simon. “If People Can’t Afford to Work in Vancouver, What Happens to the City? | Globalnews.Ca,” November 8, 2017.

Litwin, Kelsey. “À Nous La Malting.” The Link. February 13, 2017.

———. “How Students Can Actively—and Easily—Fight Gentrification.” The Link. September 5, 2017.

Liu, Eric. You’re More Powerful than You Think: A Citizen’s Guide to Making Change Happen. 1 edition. New York: PublicAffairs, 2017.

“Living Cities.” Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Living Wage Calculator – Living Wage Calculation for New York County, New York.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

“Living Wage Canada.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

“Living Wage Foundation   For the Real Cost of Living.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

“Living Wage in Hamilton Rises to $15.85 an Hour, Group Says.” CBC News. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Lloyd, Richard. “Neo–Bohemia: Art and Neighborhood Redevelopment in Chicago.” Journal of Urban Affairs 24, no. 5 (December 2002): 517–32.

Lobenfield, Claire. “Portugal’s Out.Fest Might Be an Antidote to Lisbon’s Rising Tide of Gentrification.” FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music. (blog), October 12, 2017.

“London’s Housing Struggles.” London’s Housing Struggles. Accessed October 2, 2017.

Lorinc, John. Cities: A Groundwork Guide. Groundwood Books, 2008.

———. New City: How The Crisis Of Canada’s Cities Is Reshaping Our Nation. Toronto, Ontario: Penguin Canada, 2008.

Lorinc, John, Michael McClelland, and Ellen Scheinberg, eds. The Ward: The Life and Loss of Toronto’s First Immigrant Neighbourhood. Toronto: Coach House, 2015.

Louis, Skye, and Leah Burns. “Arts & Equity Toolkit.” Neighbourhood Arts Network, Toronto Arts Foundation, March 2014.

Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia, Silvia Gonzalez, and Paul Ong. “Triangulating Neighborhood Knowledge to Understand Neighborhood Change: Methods to Study Gentrification.” Journal of Planning Education and Research, September 25, 2017, 0739456X17730890.

“Love Your City: Cultural Policy & Plan.” City of Hamilton, 2008.

Low, Seth. Spatializing Culture: The Ethnography of Space and Place. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2016.

Lowson, Glenn. “How Hamilton Is Revitalizing Its Downtown to Bring New Life.” The Globe and Mail, January 2, 2015.

Lubell, Jeffrey. “Preserving and Expanding Affordability in Neighborhoods Experiencing Rising Rents and Property Values.” Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, Working Papers Research Department, 18, no. 3 (2016): 131–50.

Lui, Tai-Lok. “Beneath the Appearance of Gentrification: Probing Local Complexities.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 41, no. 3 (May 1, 2017): 478–86.

Lund Hansen, Anders, and Eric Clark. “The Right to Freedom from Displacement – Practical Implementation and Challenges.” Sweden, 2016.

Lydon, Mike, Anthony Garcia, and Andres Duany. Tactical Urbanism: Short-Term Action for Long-Term Change. Island Press, 2015.

Macdonald, Amy, and Stephanie Chai. “The Effects of Gentrification on Artists in Two Vancouver Neighbourhoods.” Western Geography 17/18/19 (2008, 2009 2007): 61–77.

Maciag, Mike. “Gentrification in America Report.” Governing the States and Localities, February 2015.

Mack, Elizabeth A., Emily Talen, and Julia Koschinsky. “Walkable Art: An Empirical Investigation of Arts-Related Businesses and Walkable Neighborhoods.” Economic Development Quarterly 31, no. 2 (February 1, 2017): 149–63.

Mackenzie, Sarah. “Meet Vancouver-Based Collective Chapel Sound.” Redbull, October 6, 2017.

MacKinnon, Steve, Karen Teeple, and Michele Dale. Toronto’s Visual Legacy: Official City Photography from 1856 to the Present. Toronto: Lorimer, 2010.

Macklem, Patrick, and Douglas Sanderson, eds. From Recognition to Reconciliation: Essays on the Constitutional Entrenchment of Aboriginal and Treaty Rights. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2016.

Madden, David, and Peter Marcuse. “The Residential Is Political.” In The Right to the City: A Verso Report, 2017.

Maga, Carly. “Toronto’s New Culture Plan Is All Business.” Torontoist, May 3, 2011.

Magdaleno, Johnny. “New Model Could Help Cities Predict Gentrifying Neighborhoods.” Next City (blog), February 24, 2017.

Makagon, Daniel. “Bring on the Shock Troops: Artists and Gentrification in the Popular Press.” Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 7, no. 1 (March 2010): 26–52.

“Making Community Benefits a Reality in Ontario.” Atkinson Foundation, September 2016.

“Making Space for Culture: Handbook for City Leaders.” Policy and Practice Series. World Cities Culture Forum. Accessed July 24, 2017.

Makris, M. Public Housing and School Choice in a Gentrified City: Youth Experiences of Uneven Opportunity. 2015 edition. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Mallach, Alan. “Lots of Maps, Little Insight in Richard Florida’s Latest.” Shelterforce (blog), May 11, 2017.

Mann, Geoff. In the Long Run We Are All Dead: Keynesianism, Political Economy, and Revolution. London ; New York: Verso, 2017.

“MapCraft.” MapCraft. Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Mapping Gentrification in Ottawa.” Under Pressure Ottawa (blog), March 12, 2013.

Marche, Guillaume. “What Can Urban Gardening Really Do About Gentrification? A Case-Study of Three San Francisco Community Gardens.” European journal of American studies 10, no. 3 (December 31, 2015).

“Marchers Drag Soaps on Strings to Bring Attention to Gentrification.” Accessed October 1, 2017.

Marchiori-Wong, Martin. “Improving Toronto’s Business Improvement Areas and Considering Commercial Rent Control as Another Policy to Support Small Businesses.” Landmarks: The Undergraduate Geography Journal, University of Toronto 3 (Fall 2017): 56–63.

Marcuse, Peter, and David Madden. In Defense of Housing: The Politics of Crisis. London ; New York: Verso, 2016.

Markusen, Ann, and Anne Gadwa. “Arts and Culture in Urban or Regional Planning: A Review and Research Agenda.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 29, no. 3 (March 1, 2010): 379–91.

———. “Creative Placemaking.” Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Markusen, Ann, and Greg Schrock. “The Artistic Dividend: Urban Artistic Specialisation and Economic Development Implications.” Urban Studies 43, no. 10 (September 1, 2006): 1661–86.

Marques, Lénia, and Carla Borba. “Co-Creating the City: Digital Technology and Creative Tourism.” Tourism Management Perspectives 24 (October 2017): 86–93.

Martin, Shannon. “Why Toronto’s Housing Market Has a ‘Missing Middle.’” CBC News, May 23, 2017.

Martini, Natalia. “Capturing the Lived Experience of the City through Methodological Practice of Walking.” In Re-Imagining the City: Municipality and Urbanity Today from a Sociological Perspective, edited by Marta Smagacz-Poziemska, Krzysztof Frysztacki, and Andrzej Bukowski, First edition., 303–18. Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press, 2017.

Maschaykh, Ulduz. The Changing Image of Affordable Housing: Design, Gentrification and Community in Canada and Europe. Farnham, Surrey, UK ; Burlington, VT: Routledge, 2015.

Mason;, Paul. PostCapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason. 0 edition. Allen Lane, 2015.

Matchar, Emily. “How Computer Scientists Are Using Twitter to Predict Gentrification.” Smithsonian. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Mathews, Vanessa. “Aestheticizing Space: Art, Gentrification and the City.” Geography Compass 4, no. 6 (June 4, 2010): 660–75.

———. “Artcetera: Narrativising Gentrification in Yorkville, Toronto.” Urban Studies 45, no. 13 (December 2008): 2849–76.

———. “Incoherence and Tension in Culture-Led Redevelopment: Incoherent Culture-Led Redevelopment in Toronto.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 38, no. 3 (May 2014): 1019–36.

———. The Art of Ideology: Theorizing Artists and Gentrification in the Space of Yorkville, Toronto, 2004.

Mathur, Ashok, and Aruna Srivastava. “Equity within the Arts Ecology: Traditions and Trends.” Centre for Innovation in Culture and the Arts in Canada, October 2011.

Matthews, Peter. “Book Review: Gentrifier by John Joe Schlichtman, Jason Patch and Marc Lamont Hill.” USAPP (blog), September 3, 2017.

Matys, Frank. “Minimum Wage Increase Could Spark Rent Hikes in Orillia: Ritchie.”, June 5, 2017.

Maurrasse, David. Listening to Harlem: Gentrification, Community, and Business. 1 edition. Routledge, 2014.

Mayer, Margit. “First World Urban Activism: Beyond Austerity Urbanism and Creative City Politics.” City 17, no. 1 (February 2013): 5–19.

McAfee, Andrew, and Erik Brynjolfsson. Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future. 1 edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2017.

McCarthy, John, and Yan Wang. “Culture, Creativity and Commerce: Trajectories and Tensions in the Case of Beijing’s 798 Art Zone.” International Planning Studies 21, no. 1 (January 2, 2016): 1–15.

McCormack, Geoffrey. The Servant State: Overseeing Capital Accumulation in Canada. Black Point, Nova Scotia ; Winnipeg, Manitoba: Fernwood Books Ltd, 2015.

McCormick, Erin. “Rise of the Yimbys: The Angry Millennials with a Radical Housing Solution.” The Guardian, October 2, 2017, sec. Cities.

McDonald, Patrick Range. “Top 7 Code Words for Gentrification in LA.” CityWatch Los Angeles, September 7, 2017.

McDonough, Laura, Mihaela Dinca-Panaitescu, Stephanie Procyk, Charlene Cook, Julia Drydyk, Michelynn Laflèche, and James McKee. “The Opportunity Equation: Building Opportunity in the Face of Growing Income Inequality.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. United Way Toronto & York Region, EKPS Research Associates, University of Toronto, February 2015.

McElroy, Erin. “The Anti-Eviction Blues: Audio Reports from San Francisco’s Gentrifying Streets.” The Guardian, January 14, 2016, sec. Cities.

McElroy, Justin. “Revitalization or Gentrification? Strathcona Braces for Change,” June 13, 2015.

McGillivray, Kate. “High Rent Could Make Toronto a ‘Generational Ghost Town.’” CBC News, February 26, 2017.

———. “Young Ontarians Struggling with Income and Housing, and It’s Not ‘Bad Luck.’” CBC News, April 5, 2017.

McGrath, John Michael. “There’s Life Outside Toronto, but Leaving the City Is Harder than It Used to Be.” TVO, July 14, 2017.

McGrath, Michael. “Decatur, Georgia: Diversity, Gentrification, and the Art of Community Conversation.” National Civic Review 105, no. 2 (June 2016): 25–33.

McGraw, Daniel. “Free Bus Passes for Workers: Columbus’s Big Idea to Relieve a Congested Downtown.” The Guardian, October 3, 2017, sec. Cities.

McKee, Yates. Strike Art: Contemporary Art and the Post-Occupy Condition. Reprint edition. London ; New York: Verso, 2017.

McKeen, Alex. “Laneway Suite Proposal Could Offer Relief amid Toronto Housing Crunch.” The Toronto Star, December 28, 2017, sec. GTA.

———. “National Housing Agency Looks to Airbnb for Help to Boost Number of Affordable Units.” The Toronto Star, October 4, 2017, sec. GTA.

———. “Where in the City Do People Struggle Most to Pay for Their Homes?” The Toronto Star, October 25, 2017, sec. GTA.

McKenzie, Francesca, and Blogging Fellow. “The Arts Organization’s Role in Addressing Gentrification.” ArtsFwd (blog), December 6, 2013.

McKenzie, Gracie. “Tales From L.A.’s Gentrification-Fueled Identity Crisis.” CityLab, October 18, 2017.

McKinnish, Terra, Randall Walsh, and T. Kirk White. “Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?” Journal of Urban Economics 67, no. 2 (March 1, 2010): 180–93.

McKnight, John, and Peter Block. The Abundant Community: Awakening the Power of Families and Neighborhoods. Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2012.

McLaren, Duncan, and Julian Agyeman. Sharing Cities: A Case for Truly Smart and Sustainable Cities. 1 edition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2015.

McLean, Heather. “Digging into the Creative City: A Feminist Critique.” Antipode 46, no. 3 (2014): 669–90.

McLean, Heather E. “Cracks in the Creative City: The Contradictions of Community Arts Practice: Contradictions of Community Arts Practice in Toronto.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 38, no. 6 (November 2014): 2156–73.

McLoughlin, Kyle. “Unwittingly Becoming an Agent of Gentrification.” The Link. February 17, 2015.

McNamara, Rea. “Why Artists Make Better Landlords: An Interview with Akin Collective’s Oliver Pauk and Michael Vickers.” Art F City, June 20, 2016.

McNiff, Shaun, ed. Art as Research: Opportunities and Challenges. Bristol: Intellect Ltd, 2013.

“Measuring Cultural Engagement: A Quest for New Terms, Tools, and Techniques | NEA.” Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, June 2014.

Meja, Brittny, and Steve Saldivar. “Boyle Heights Activists Blame the Art Galleries for Gentrification.” Los Angeles Times, August 4, 2016.

Mejia, Brittny. “Gentrification Pushes up against Boyle Heights — and Vice Versa.” Los Angeles Times, March 3, 2016.

Mellander, Charlotta, Richard Florida, Bjørn T. Asheim, and Meric Gertler, eds. The Creative Class Goes Global. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Melo, Carla. “Are We All in the Same Boat? Staging the ‘Invisible Majority’ in the Streets of Toronto.” Canadian Theatre Review 161 (January 2015): 33–37.

Meltzer, Erica. “What’s so Bad about Gentrification Anyway?” Denverite, October 3, 2017.

Meltzer, Rachel. “Gentrification and Small Business: Threat or Opportunity?,” 39. Philadelphia, 2016.

———. “Retail Churn Can Bring Both Volatility and Vitality to a Neighborhood.” USAPP (blog), December 10, 2016.

Meltzer, Rachel, and Pooya Ghorbani. “Does Gentrification Increase Employment Opportunities in Low-Income Neighborhoods?” Regional Science and Urban Economics 66, no. Supplement C (September 1, 2017): 52–73.

Merriam, Sharan B., and Elizabeth J. Tisdell. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. 4 edition. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2015.

Metcalf, Gabriel. “The Permanent Housing Crisis.” SPUR (blog), August 29, 2017.

Micallef, Shawn. Frontier City: Toronto on the Verge of Greatness. Signal, 2017.

———. “Regent Park — a New Report Tells the Story of How Toronto’s $1 Billion Public Housing Revitalization Happened.” Spacing (blog), March 15, 2013.

———. “Regent Park: A Story of Collective Impact.” Metcalf Foundation, March 2013.

———. “Who Has the Right to Thrive in Toronto?” The Toronto Star, July 21, 2017, sec. GTA.

Micallef, Shawn, and Marlena Zuber. Stroll: Psychogeographic Walking Tours of Toronto. 1 edition. Toronto: Coach House, 2010.

Michels, John F., and John Michels. Permanent Weekend: Nature, Leisure, and Rural Gentrification. Montreal ; Kingston ; London ; Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017.

Miles, Malcolm. Limits to Culture: Urban Regeneration Vs. Dissident Art. London: Pluto Press, 2015.

“Millennial Writes Letter about Her Generation Leaving Toronto Due to Real Estate Prices.” Global News (blog). Accessed September 28, 2017.

Miller, Alicia Kae. “Displacement Matters: The Socioeconomics of Gentrification in Richmond, California.” Senior Theses and Capstone Projects, May 1, 2017.

Milton, Jon. “Anti-Gentrification Groups Push For Community-Centred Spaces.” The Link. October 31, 2016.

Minton, Anna. Big Capital: Who Is London For? UK: PENGUIN GROUP, 2017.

Miranda, Carolina A. “‘Out!’’ Boyle Heights Activists Say White Art Elites Are Ruining the Neighborhood…but It’s Complicated.’” Los Angeles Times, August 4, 2016.

Misra, Tanvi. “An Online Tool to Predict Gentrification—and Fight Displacement.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “Using Algorithms To Predict Gentrification.” CityLab, February 17, 2017.

———. “Where San Francisco Is Gentrifying.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Mississauga Culture Master Plan.” City of Mississauga, 2009.

Mistry, Arzu. “Art in Transit: A Pedagogic Approach.” Visual Inquiry: Learning & Teaching Art 6, no. 2 (June 2017): 149–64.

MN, Conflict. “Keep It Local: Gentrification and Art in Minneapolis.” It’s Going Down (blog), March 2, 2017.

Mock, Brentin. “A Toolkit For Tackling Gentrification.” CityLab. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “Can a City Ever Have Major Redevelopment Without Displacement?” CityLab, February 12, 2016.

Mojtehedzadeh, Sara. “Precarious Work Further Divides a Divided City.” The Toronto Star, December 3, 2014, sec. GTA.

Molho, Jérémie, and Dominique Sagot-Duvauroux. “From Global to Local Creative Dynamics: The Location Patterns of Art Galleries.” In Creative Industries in Europe, 43–64. Springer, Cham, 2017.

Molina-Wilshaw, Maria T. Where Have All The Flowers Gone?: The Displacement of Minorities In the Process of Gentrification. 1 edition. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.

Molotch, Harvey, and Mark Treskon. “Changing Art: SoHo, Chelsea and the Dynamic Geography of Galleries in New York City.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33, no. 2 (June 2009): 517–41.

Mondry, Aaron. “Detroit’s Equitable Developers Share Strategies for Making the City Both Prosperous and Just.” Model D, September 18, 2017.

Monsebraaten, Laurie. “Condos Becoming Part of Toronto’s Affordable Housing Tool Box.” The Toronto Star, May 21, 2013, sec. GTA.

———. “Kids Suffer Most as Toronto Clings to Title of Child Poverty Capital.” The Toronto Star, November 14, 2016, sec. GTA.

———. “Toronto Council Endorses Artistic Community-Cultural Hub for Weston.” The Toronto Star, March 31, 2015, sec. GTA.

———. “Toronto Region Becoming More Divided along Income Lines.” The Toronto Star, November 1, 2017, sec. GTA.

———. “Toronto’s Poorest Neighbourhoods Chose Doug Ford.” The Toronto Star, October 28, 2014, sec. Toronto 2014 election.

Montgomery, Charles. Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013.

Montpetit, Jonathan. “How One Montreal Neighbourhood Has Become a Battleground in Canada’s Gentrification Debate.” CBC News, May 31, 2016.

Moore, Quianta, and for the Houston Chronicle. “How to Avoid Gentrifying a Neighborhood.” Houston Chronicle, October 11, 2017.

Moore, Rowan. “Automatic Disdain for ‘Gentrification’ Is Misguided If Local Lives Are Improved.” The Guardian, October 1, 2017, sec. Opinion.

———. “Big Capital: Who Is London For? By Anna Minton – Review.” The Observer, June 12, 2017, sec. Books.

———. “London: The City That Ate Itself.” The Observer, June 28, 2015, sec. UK news.

———. “The Bilbao Effect: How Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Started a Global Craze.” The Observer, October 1, 2017, sec. Art and design.

Moore, Rowan, David Harewood, Tony Walsh Lynsey Hanley, Andrew Adonis, John Bird, Sheila Scott, Kerry Hudson, and Marcus Barnes. “Decent Homes for All… Has the Social Housing Dream Died?” The Observer, June 25, 2017, sec. Society.

Moos, Markus, and Andrejs Skaburskis. “The Globalization of Urban Housing Markets: Immigration and Changing Housing Demand in Vancouver.” Urban Geography 31, no. 6 (August 1, 2010): 724–49.

Moran, Jenna, Jason Schupbach, Courtney Spearman, and Jennifer Reut. “Beyond the Building: Performing Arts & Transforming Place.” Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Arts, May 2015.

Moretti, Enrico. The New Geography of Jobs. Paper edition. Boston, Mass.: Mariner Books, 2013.

Morgan, George, and Pariece Nelligan. The Creativity Hoax: Precarious Work in the Gig Economy. Anthem Press, 2018.

Moskowitz, Peter. “Art in the Time of Gentrification: Can NYC’s Culture Be Saved from Its Economy?” Vice. December 20, 2015.

———. How to Kill a City: Gentrification, Inequality, and the Fight for the Neighborhood. New York, NY: Nation Books, 2017.

———. “The Two Detroits: A City Both Collapsing and Gentrifying at the Same Time.” The Guardian, February 5, 2015, sec. Cities.

———. “What Role Do Artists Play in Gentrification?” Artsy, September 11, 2017.

Moss, Geoffrey. Artistic Enclaves in the Post-Industrial City: A Case Study of Lawrenceville, Pittsburgh. SpringerBriefs. New York, NY: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2017.

Moss, Jeremiah. “Bill’s Burden on Gentrification.” New York Daily News. September 17, 2017.

———. Vanishing New York: How a Great City Lost Its Soul. Dey Street Books, 2017.

Mould, Oli. Urban Subversion and the Creative City. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015.

———. “Why Culture Competitions and ‘artwashing’ Drive Urban Inequality.” Open Democracy (blog), September 14, 2017.

Mudhar, Raju. “Artscape Gets $2 Million for New Youngspace.” The Toronto Star, November 2, 2011, sec. Entertainment.

Mueller, Gavin. “Liberalism and Gentrification.” Accessed November 1, 2017.

“Municipal Cultural Master Plan.” City of Windsor, April 19, 2010.

“Municipal Cultural Master Plan Summary.” City of Windsor, May 2014.

“Municipal Cultural Plan.” Town of Midland, March 2014.

“Municipal Cultural Planning: A Toolkit for Ontario Municipalities.” Municipal Cultural Planning Incorporated, 2011.

“Municipal Cultural Planning: Indicators and Performance Measures Guidebook.” Canadian Urban Institute, 2011.

Murdie, Robert, and Jennifer Logan. “Bibliography and Review of Neighbourhood Typologies with a Focus on Canada, the United States, and Australia/New Zealand.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto, September 2014.

Murdie, Robert, Richard Maaranen, and Jennifer Logan. “Eight Canadian Metropolitan Areas: Spatial Patterns of Neighbourhood Change, 1981-2006.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto, October 2014.

———. “Eight Canadian Metropolitan Areas: Who Lived Where in 2006?” Toronto: Cities Centre, University of Toronto, September 2013.

Murdoch, James, Carl Grodach, and Nicole Foster. “The Importance of Neighborhood Context in Arts-Led Development.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 36, no. 1 (August 18, 2015): 32–48.

Murray, Glen. “To Thrive, Cities Need Many Hands.” The Toronto Star, March 16, 2008, sec. Opinion.

Murray, Kathleen. Gentrification. SAGE Business Researcher. SAGE Publishing, 2017.

Murzyn-Kupisz, Monika, and Jaroslaw Dzialek, eds. The Impact of Artists on Contemporary Urban Development in Europe. 1st ed. 2017 edition. New York, NY: Springer, 2017.

Musgrave, Beth. “Are Those New Neighbors Driving up Your Property Tax Bill? Help Could Be Coming.” Lexington Herald Leader, September 26, 2017.

“Music Minds Matter.” Help Musicians UK. Accessed October 19, 2017.

“‘My Neighbors Would Look at Me Like an Alien’: Women of Gentrification.” Rewire. Accessed October 25, 2017.

Mytnowych, Natasha. “Risk and Resilience: Models for Personal Finance and the Arts.” Canadian Theatre Review 167 (July 2016): 22–25.

Nagle, Angela. Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan And Tumblr To Trump And The Alt-Right. Zero Books, 2017.

Naldi, Pat. “Artist Strategies and Methods of Resistance in the Regenerated City.” presented at the 18th Nordic Geographers Meeting, Stockholm, June 21, 2017.

Nathan, Max, Tom Kemeny, Andy Pratt, and Greg Spencer. “Creative Economy Employment in the US, Canada and the UK.” Nesta, March 27, 2016.

“National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership.” Accessed October 7, 2017.

Needham, Alex. “Punchdrunk’s Luxury Rebrand Is the Theatrical Version of Gentrification.” The Guardian, September 28, 2017, sec. Stage.

Neigh, Scott. “Gentrification in Hamilton: Some Initial Thoughts.” A Canadian Lefty in Occupied Land (blog), December 10, 2015.

———. Queers against Gentrification. Talking Radical Radio. Accessed November 12, 2017.

“Neighbourhood Action Strategy.” Text. City of Hamilton, March 6, 2015.

Nelson, Kathryn P. Gentrification and Distressed Cities: An Assessment of Trends in Intrametropolitan Migration. Madison, Wis: Univ of Wisconsin Pr, 1988.

“NEST Collective and Studios.” NEST Collective and Studios. Accessed January 6, 2018.

“New Ideas for Old Buildings: Findings of the Creative Spaces and the Built Environment Forum, Disucssion Paper.” Sydney, Australia, March 2016.

“New Study Identifies Housing Displacement Occurring in Denver, Recommendations to Help Residents Stay in Neighborhoods,” May 18, 2016.

Newman, Kathe, Elvin K. Wyly, and University of Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies. Gentrification and Displacement Revisited: A Fresh Look at the New York City Experience. Research Bulletin (University of Toronto. Centre for Urban and Community Studies) ; 31. Toronto: University of Toronto Centre for Urban and Community Studies, 2006.

Newman, Laine Zisman. “Absent, Invisible, and Incoherent: Archiving Queer Women’s Performance Futurities.” Canadian Theatre Review 163 (June 2015): 19–24.

Newsom, Gavin, and Lisa Dickey. Citizenville: How to Take the Town Square Digital and Reinvent Government. Penguin Books, 2014.

Newton, Peter, Denny Meyer, and Stephen Glackin. “Becoming Urban: Exploring the Transformative Capacity for a Suburban-to-Urban Transition in Australia’s Low-Density Cities.” Sustainability 9, no. 10 (September 25, 2017): 1718.

“Niagara Culture Plan.” Niagara Region. Accessed October 3, 2017.

Nicodemus, Anne Gadwa. “Fuzzy Vibrancy: Creative Placemaking as Ascendant US Cultural Policy.” Cultural Trends 22, no. 3–4 (December 2013): 213–22.

NION, Brand Hamburg (Initiative Not. “Not in Our Name! Jamming the Gentrification Machine: A Manifesto.” City 14, no. 3 (June 2010): 323–25.

“No Pride in Gentrification.” Accessed October 5, 2017.

Norton, William, and Margaret Walton-Roberts. Cultural Geography: Environments, Landscapes, Identities, Inequalities. 3 edition. Don Mills, Ontario, Canada: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Noveck, Beth Simone. Smart Citizens, Smarter State: The Technologies of Expertise and the Future of Governing. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2015.

“Now That It’s Undeniable: Gentrification in Hamilton 2015.” Anarchist News (blog), July 1, 2015.

Oakley, Kate. “Creating Space: A Re-Evaluation of the Role of Culture in Regeneration.” Cultural Value. Arts & Humanities Research Council, 2015.

Oberlin, Kathleen C., and Thomas F. Gieryn. “Place and Culture-Making: Geographic Clumping in the Emergence of Artistic Schools.” Poetics 50 (June 2015): 20–43.

O’Brien, Heather M., Christina Sanchez Juarez, and Betty Martin. “An Artists’ Guide to Not Being Complicit with Gentrification.” Hyperallergic, June 19, 2017.

O’Brien, Laura Josephine, and Laura Josephine O’Brien. “‘Artful Vandals’: Urban Interventions, Street Art and Spatial Feminisms.” Masters, Concordia University, 2016.

“Occupy a Living Wage.” Art21 Magazine, January 11, 2012.

O’Connor, Justin, and Mark Andrejevic. “Creative City, Smart City … Whose City Is It?” The Conversation (blog), June 11, 2017.

O’Donnell, Stephanie. “Art as Activism: Displacement Prevention in the Twin Cities,” December 2016.

Ogilvie, Robert. “What’s Going On: Tensions, and Solutions, in a Changing Oakland.” KCET, September 27, 2017.

Oliver, Miguel de. “Gentrification as the Appropriation of Therapeutic ‘Diversity’: A Model and Case Study of the Multicultural Amenity of Contemporary Urban Renewal.” Urban Studies 53, no. 6 (May 2016): 1299–1316.

O’Neil, Cathy. Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy. Reprint edition. New York: Broadway Books, 2017.

ONN. “Decent Work.” ONN (blog). Accessed October 1, 2017.

“Ontario Federation of Labour: Make It Fair.” Make It Fair. Accessed October 1, 2017.

“Ontario Living Wage Network.” Ontario Living Wage Network. Accessed October 1, 2017.

“Ontario’s Culture Strategy.”, September 21, 2015.

“Ontario’s Tourism Action Plan.” Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport, June 2016.

“Ontario’s Working Poor: Maps You’ll Never Find at the Gas Station.” OnPolicy. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives: Ontario Office, Summer 2016.

Opillard, Florian. “Resisting the Politics of Displacement in the San Francisco Bay Area: Anti-Gentrification Activism in the Tech Boom 2.0.” European Journal of American Studies 10, no. 3 (December 31, 2015).

“Orangeville’s Cultural Advantage: Municipal Cultural Plan with Appendices.” Culture Capital, Nordicity, GeoPraxis Inc., March 2014.

O’Reilly, Nicole. “Bill Aims to Stop Unfair Rent Increases; Hamilton Experts Say It’s Not Enough.” The Hamilton Spectator, March 19, 2017, sec. News-Local.


Osman, Suleiman. The Invention of Brownstone Brooklyn: Gentrification and the Search for Authenticity in Postwar New York. Reprint edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.

———. “What Time Is Gentrification?” City & Community 15, no. 3 (September 1, 2016): 215–19.

O’Sullivan, Feargus. “London Will Set Up Special ‘Creative Zones’ for Artist Housing.” CityLab, September 13, 2016.

———. “Mapping Where Europe’s Population Is Moving, Aging, and Finding Work.” CityLab, September 27, 2017.

O’Sullivan, Mary Therese. “Home Is Where the Art Is: The Impact That Housing Laws and Gentrification Policies Have Had on the Availability and Affordability of Artist Live/Work Spaces.” Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law 23 (2013): 461.

Otar, Chad. “Does Gentrification Help Or Harm Small Businesses?” Forbes, November 9, 2017.

Out, Blights. “The Cultural Ramifications of Gentrification in New Orleans.” Shelterforce (blog), August 23, 2017.

“Out There – Waging Culture: The Ethnicity Effect.” The Art Gallery of York University (blog), July 21, 2014.

Oved, Marco Chown. “How Do We Cross Toronto’s Great Divides?” The Toronto Star, November 30, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Lessons from Crossing Toronto’s Divides.” The Toronto Star, December 29, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Three Paths to More Mixed-Income Neighbourhoods.” The Toronto Star, April 11, 2015, sec. GTA.

Ovidio, Marianna d’, and Arturo Rodríguez Morató. “Introduction to SI: Against the Creative City: Activism in the Creative City: When Cultural Workers Fight against Creative City Policy.” City, Culture and Society 8 (March 2017): 3–6.

“Owner of Rock Bar The Hideout Says Gentrification Killing the Queen West Buzz.” CityNews (blog), September 14, 2016.

Ozogul, Sara, and Tuna Tasan-Kok. “Fieldwork Entrepreneurs in Toronto, Jane-Finch (Canada).” Amsterdam and Delft: University of Amsterdam and TU Delft, 2016.

P, Neesha. “Here’s How Queer and Trans People of Color Are Resisting Gentrification and Displacement.” Autostraddle, May 16, 2017.

Paccoud, Antoine. “Buy-to-Let Gentrification: Extending Social Change through Tenure Shifts.” Environment and Planning A 49, no. 4 (April 1, 2017): 839–56.

Pagliaro, Jennifer. “Change Will Come Slowly despite OMB Reforms.” The Toronto Star, December 18, 2017, sec. City Hall.

Pajević, Filipa. “We Don’t Want No Silicon Valley – the Canadian City Fighting for a New Kind of Tech Hub.” CityMetric, February 17, 2017.

Palen, J. John. Gentrification, Displacement, and Neighborhood Revitalization. Edited by Bruce London. Albany: State Univ of New York Pr, 1984.

Palermo, Luca. “The Role of Art in Urban Gentrification and Regeneration: Aesthetic, Social and Economic Developments.” IL CAPITALE CULTURALE. Studies on the Value of Cultural Heritage 0, no. 10 (June 14, 2014): 521–45.

Palermo, Pier Carlo, and Davide Ponzini. Place-Making and Urban Development: New Challenges for Contemporary Planning and Design (e-Book) – Routledge. Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2014.

Pallares-Barbera, Montserrat, Esteve Dot, and Antònia Casellas. “Artists, Cultural Gentrification and Public Policy.” Urbani Izziv, no. 23(s 1) (2012): 104–14.

Panne, Valerie Vande. “How Harlem Residents Found a Unique Way to Fight Gentrification.” Salon, October 3, 2017.

———. “How One Community Is Using a Surprising and Successful Tool to Fight Gentrification.” AlterNet, September 28, 2017.

Panos, Justin. “An Education in Gentrification: Full-Throtle Neoliberalism in Toronto.” Briarpatch (blog), September 1, 2014.

Paradis, Emily, Ruth Marie Wilson, and Jennifer Logan. “Inadequate Housing & Risk of Homelessness Among Families in Toronto’s Aging Rental Buildings.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. Toronto: University of Toronto, March 2014.

Parijs, Philippe Van, and Yannick Vanderborght. Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy. Cambridge, Massachusetts London,England: Harvard University Press, 2017.

Paris, Mario, ed. Making Prestigious Places: How Luxury Influences the Transformation of Cities. 1 edition. London: Routledge, 2017.

“Parkdale Organize.” Parkdale Organize. Accessed February 15, 2018.

Parker, Geoffrey G., Marshall W. Van Alstyne, and Sangeet Paul Choudary. Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy – and How to Make Them Work For You. Reprint edition. WW Norton, 2017.

Paton, Kirsteen. Gentrification: A Working-Class Perspective. Farnham, Surrey, UK ; Burlington, VT: Routledge, 2014.

Patterson, Dean. “Marchers in Brooklyn Map a Geography of Gentrification.” The Indypendent (blog), September 12, 2017.

Patterson, Duncan. “The Wild Queen West.” Spacing Toronto (blog), November 30, 2007.

Patterson, Grant. “Arts-Based Neighborhood Revitalization Engaging Artists & Creative Entrepreneurs to Identify Policy Recommendations,” May 2017.

“Paying Artists: Valuing Art, Valuing Artists.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

Pearman, Francis A., and Walker A. Swain. “School Choice, Gentrification, and the Variable Significance of Racial Stratification in Urban Neighborhoods.” Sociology of Education 90, no. 3 (July 1, 2017): 213–35.

Pearson, Mike. “Riverdale Apartment Residents Worry about Gentrification.”, September 23, 2015.

Pearson, Will. “Downtown Needs Real Ambassadors, Not a Private Security Team.” Electric City Magazine, August 23, 2017.

“Peel Poverty Action Group.” Peel Poverty Action Group. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Pendall, Rolf. “A Building Block for Inclusion: Housing for Community-Level Diversity, Participation, and Cohesion.” Washington, DC: Metropolitan Housing and Communities Policy Center, Urban Institute, September 2017.

Perry Abello, Oscar. “Here’s How 1,379 Affordable Housing Programs Stack Up.” Next City (blog), October 2, 2017.

Perry, Francesca. “‘We Are Building Our Way to Hell’: Tales of Gentrification around the World.” The Guardian, October 5, 2016, sec. Cities.

Petruziello, Milo. Gentrification and the Arts on Mississippi Ave.: Creating Two Communities and Making Them Whole. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2010.

Pflug-Beck, Kelly Rose. “Racist Landlords Are Making Toronto’s Housing Crisis Worse.” Ricochet (blog), March 30, 2016.

PhD, Patricia Leavy, ed. Handbook of Arts-Based Research. 1 edition. New York: The Guilford Press, 2017.

———. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Methods, Arts-Based, and Community-Based Participatory Research Approaches. New York; London: The Guilford Press, 2017.

Phillips, Andrea, ed. Social Housing – Housing the Social: Art, Property and Spatial Justice. Actors, Agents and Attendants 2. Berlin: Sternberg Press, 2012.

Phillips, Lisa. Public Servants: Art and the Crisis of the Common Good. Edited by Johanna Burton, Shannon Jackson, and Dominic Willsdon. 1 edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2016.

Phillips, Martin. Handbook of Gentrification Studies. Edited by Loretta Lees. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Pub, 2018.

Phillips, R. “Artful Business: Using the Arts for Community Economic Development.” Community Development Journal 39, no. 2 (April 1, 2004): 112–22.

Philp, Drew. A $500 House in Detroit: Rebuilding an Abandoned Home and an American City. Reprint edition. New York ; London: Scribner, 2018.

Pickford, James. “Tate Modern Explores State of the Art Studios.” Financial Times, January 15, 2018.

Piette, Joseph. “Anti-Gentrification Organizing Heats up in Philadelphia.” Workers World, September 23, 2017.

Pigg, Susan. “$700-Million Arts-Focused Complex Planned for Queens Quay Site.” The Toronto Star, March 26, 2015, sec. Business.

Piketty, Thomas. The Economics of Inequality. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Tra edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London, England: Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University Press, 2015.

Pinder, David. “Urban Interventions: Art, Politics and Pedagogy: Debates and Developments.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 32, no. 3 (September 2008): 730–36.

Pinkster, Fenne M, and Willem R Boterman. “When the Spell Is Broken: Gentrification, Urban Tourism and Privileged Discontent in the Amsterdam Canal District.” Cultural Geographies 24, no. 3 (July 1, 2017): 457–72.

Pipe, Taylor. “Gentrification And Art: It’s Complicated.” The Anvil (blog), September 11, 2016.

PItter, Jay. “A Visit to the Social Housing Community of My Childhood.” NOW Magazine, June 5, 2016.

Pitter, Jay. “Spatial Entitlement—a.k.a. Your Right to Take Up Space.” Flare, February 16, 2017, sec. Culture.

Pitter, Jay, and John Lorinc, eds. Subdivided: City-Building in an Age of Hyper-Diversity. Toronto: Coach House Books, 2016.

“Place Lab.” University of Chicago. Accessed October 14, 2017.

“Placemaking Week,” 2017.

“Placemaking: What If We Built Our Cities around Places?” Project for Public Spaces, October 2016.

Pool, Corey. “St. Henri Occupiers Face Eviction.” The Link. June 5, 2013.

Poon, Mona. “A Handbook for Vancouver Artists Seeking Affordable Studio Space.” University of British Columbia, 2010.

Posadzki, Alexandra. “Canadian Families Moving to Escape Urban Housing Prices.” Macleans (blog), February 8, 2017.

Post. “Gentrification, Housing at the Core of Denver’s 2015 Strategic Plan.” The Denver Post (blog), February 12, 2015.

Pothier, Mela. “Queers in the Hood: How LGBTQ2SI+ Folks Can Stand up to Gentrification in Hamilton Neighbourhoods.” BentQ (blog). Accessed November 12, 2017.

“Predicting Gentrification in the Era of Big Data.” Community and Economic Development in North Carolina and Beyond: UNC Chapel Hill School of Government, September 22, 2016.

“Predicting Gentrification through Social Networking Data.” EurekAlert!, April 12, 2016.

Price, Emily. “Home Lender Loftium Requires You List a Room on Airbnb.” Fortune, September 19, 2017, sec. Real Estate.

“Priced Out.” Priced Out: The Documentary. Accessed November 1, 2017.

Pritchard, Stephen. “Artwashing & Gentrification (or the Deeply Interwoven Web of Arts & Corporate Interests).” Colouring in Culture. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “Artwashing: Social Capital & Anti-Gentrification Activism.” Kings College, London, June 17, 2017.

———. “Hipsters and Artists Are the Gentrifying Foot Soldiers of Capitalism.” The Guardian, September 13, 2016, sec. Opinion.

———. “Place Guarding: Activist & Social Practice Art – Direct Action Against Gentrification.” San Francisco, 2016.

———. “Place Guarding: Activist & Social Practice Art – Direct Action Against Gentrification.” Colouring in Culture (blog), March 29, 2016.

Proano, Nicole. “Understanding the Anti-Gentrification Attacks in Hochelaga.” The Link. December 5, 2016.

Procyk, Stephanie. “Understanding Income Inequality in Canada, 1980-2014.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. United Way Toronto/York Region and University of Toront, October 2014.

“Project for Public Spaces.” Project for Public Spaces. Accessed October 10, 2017.

“Projet Impact Collectif | Collective Impact Project.” Centraide of Greater Montreal. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Promoting Ontario Music.” Music Ontario, August 23, 2013.

Provost, Claire, and Simone Lai. “‘This Is Art, Not a Public Disturbance’: Turin’s Balcony Concert Is under Threat.” The Guardian, September 28, 2017, sec. Cities.

Przybyslawski, Corinne. “This Short Doc Highlights the Effects of Gentrification on a City’s Music Scene.” Thump, April 25, 2017.

“Pseudo-Public Space: Explore the Map – and Tell Us What We’re Missing.” The Guardian, July 24, 2017, sec. Cities.

“Public Consultations – Economic Development and Culture Divisional Strategy (2018-2022).” City of Toronto. Accessed October 29, 2017.

Pucci, Michelle. “Give Me a Home Where the Undergrads Roam.” The Link. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Quiros, Victor. Neighborhood Transformation and Gentrification: A Study of Individual and Community Narratives of Home, Neighborhood and Community Transformation. LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2011.

Quito, Anne, and Anne Quito. “Anti-Gentrification Activists Took over Berlin’s Public Theater and Turned It into a 24/7 Party.” Quartz (blog). Accessed September 28, 2017.

Ra, Durmaz Bu. Success of Urban Regeneration Regarding Gentrification&sustainability. Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2014.

Ralston, Sonia. “Low-Rise Housing in Toronto and Lima in 1968: A Rejection of the Corbusian HighRise or Modernization through Appropriation?” Landmarks: The Undergraduate Geography Journal, University of Toronto 3 (Fall 2017): 46–55.

Ramirez, Margaret Marietta. “Decolonial Ruptures of the City: Art-Activism amid Racialized Dispossession in Oakland,” 2017.

Rankin, Katharine N., Kuni Kamizaki, Heather McLean, Canadian Electronic Library (Firm), Canadian Electronic Library – York University, and University of Toronto: Cities Centre,. The State of Business in Mount Dennis: Disinvestment and Gentrification in Toronto’s Inner-Suburbs. Research Paper (University of Toronto. Cities Centre) ; 226. Beaconsfield, Quebec: Canadian Electronic Library, 2013.

Ratti, Carlo, and Matthew Claudel. The City of Tomorrow: Sensors, Networks, Hackers, and the Future of Urban Life. New Haven ; London: Yale University Press, 2016.

Ravallion, Martin. The Economics of Poverty: History, Measurement, and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015.

“Reaching out to Atypical Workers.” International Arts and Entertainment Alliance. Accessed October 1, 2017.

“Real-Time Social Media Analytics for Gentrification.” Keyhole. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Reckdahl, Katy. “Keeping Your Artists Close to Home.” Shelterforce (blog), January 11, 2017.

Redhill, Michael. “What the Giller Prize Means to Michael Redhill.” The Globe and Mail, November 2017.

Reece, Jason. “Technical Memorandum on Gentrification Issues.” Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race & Ethnicity, Ohio State University, July 28, 2004.

Regan, Paulette, and Taiaiake Alfred. Unsettling the Settler Within: Indian Residential Schools, Truth Telling, and Reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2011.

Reich, Robert B. Saving Capitalism: For the Many, Not the Few. First Edition edition. New York: Knopf, 2015.

Reillier, Laure Claire, and Benoit Reillier. Platform Strategy: How to Unlock the Power of Communities and Networks to Grow Your Business. 1 edition. London ; New York: Routledge, 2017.

Reiner, Theresia. Gentrification and Politics. Political Measures Against Gentrification Using the Example of Graz and Hamburg. Grin Publishing, 2017.

Relph, Edward. Toronto: Transformations in a City and Its Region. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Renner, Kay. Gentrification in SoHo, New York. 1 edition. GRIN Verlag, 2010.

“Rent-Control Policy `likely Fueled the Gentrification of San Francisco,’ Study Finds.” The Mercury News (blog), November 2, 2017.

“Rentlogic.” Rentlogic – before you sign a lease. Accessed October 1, 2017.

Rérat, Patrick, Ola Söderström, Etienne Piguet, and Roger Besson. “From Urban Wastelands to New-Build Gentrification: The Case of Swiss Cities.” Population, Space and Place, October 8, 2009, n/a-n/a.

“Research Symposium on Gentrification and Neighborhood Change.” Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia: Community Development Events, 2016.

“Resources | Equity in Theatre.” Accessed October 14, 2017.

“Revitalization News – Cape Town Celebrates Repurposing Iconic Waterfront Grain Silo as African Art Museum.” Revitalization News (blog), October 1, 2017.

“Revitalization or Gentrification?” Media, Culture & Society (blog), March 25, 2013.

“Revitalization without Displacement.” A Livablity Fact Sheet. AARP, 2014.

Rich, Meghan Ashlin. “Arts Districts Without Artists.” Metropolitics (blog), March 23, 2015.

Rich, Meghan Ashlin, and William Tsitsos. “Avoiding the ‘SoHo Effect’ in Baltimore: Neighborhood Revitalization and Arts and Entertainment Districts: AVOIDING THE ‘SOHO EFFECT’ IN BALTIMORE.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 40, no. 4 (July 2016): 736–56.

Richards, Greg. “Creativity and Tourism.” Annals of Tourism Research 38, no. 4 (October 2011): 1225–53.

Richardson, Ashley Boles. “Equitable Cultural Development : A Best Practices Toolkit for Inclusive and Sustainable Cultural Development,” 2015.

Rider, David. “A Tale of Income Inequality in Five Toronto Neighbourhoods.” The Toronto Star, December 8, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Gardiner Vote Reveals How Toronto Is a Divided City.” The Toronto Star, June 12, 2015, sec. City Hall.

———. “Mayor John Tory Warns of Risks of a Divided City.” The Toronto Star, December 1, 2014, sec. City Hall.

———. “Star Series Looks at Toronto: The Divided City.” The Toronto Star, November 28, 2014, sec. GTA.

———. “Toronto’s Income Gap Continues to Widen, Finds U of T Expert.” The Toronto Star, January 28, 2015, sec. City Hall.

“Rising Rents, Noise and Health Issues: Is Artscape Failing Its Tenants Who Seek Affordable Live-Work Studios?” The Globe and Mail, July 24, 2015.

Rizzi, Paolo, Ilaria Dioli, Paola Graziano, and Cheryl Bradbee. “Urban Regeneration through Arts and Culture: The Case of a Multicultural Neighbourhood in a Medium-Sized Italian City.” Journal of Urban Regeneration & Renewal 10, no. 3 (January 1, 2017): 301–13.

Robertson, Ivan, and Cary Cooper. Well-Being: Productivity and Happiness at Work. 1st ed. 2011 edition. Place of publication not identified: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Robinson, Matt. “Almost No One to Earn More under Vancouver’s Living Wage Policy.” The Vancouver Sun, September 22, 2016.

Rodenbeck, Eric. “Mapping Silicon Valley’s Gentrification Problem Through Corporate Shuttle Routes.” Wired (blog), September 6, 2013.

Rodionova, Ziata. “How Twitter and Foursquare Can Predict the next Up-and-Coming Area.” The Independent, April 15, 2016, sec. Business News.

Roelvink, Gerda. Building Dignified Worlds: Geographies of Collective Action. Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2016.

Roelvink, Gerda, Kevin St Martin, and J. K. Gibson-Graham, eds. Making Other Worlds Possible: Performing Diverse Economies. University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Rojas, James. “Why Urban Planners Should Work With Artists.” KCET, April 7, 2015.

Romero, Rachel. “Bittersweet Ambivalence: Austin’s Street Artists Speak of Gentrification.” Journal of Cultural Geography, June 22, 2017, 1–22.

Rosario Jackson, Maria. “How Creative Placemaking Plays a Role in the Creative Economy.” KCET, March 13, 2015.

Rosario Jackson, Maria, Florence Kabwasa-Green, and Joaquin Herranz. “Cultural Vitality in Communities: Interpretation and Indicators.” Urban Institute, December 15, 2006.

Rose, Kalima. “Combating Gentrification Through Equitable Development | Reimagine!” Reimagine RP&E Journal (blog). Accessed October 14, 2017.

Rose, Kalima, Milly Hawk Daniel, and Jeremy Liu. “Creating Change through Arts, Culture, and Equitable Development: A Policy and Practice Primer.” PolicyLink, 2017.

———. “Creating Change through Arts, Culture, and Equitable Development: A Policy and Practice Primer-Executive Summary.” PolicyLink, 2017.

Rosen, Gillad, and Alan Walks. “Castles in Toronto’s Sky: Condo-Ism as Urban Transformation.” Journal of Urban Affairs 37, no. 3 (August 2015): 289–310.

Rosenthal, Stuart S., and Stephen L. Ross. “Change and Persistence in the Economic Status of Neighbourhoods and Cities.” Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics 5 (2014).

Ross, Alec. The Industries of the Future. Reprint edition. New York London Toronto Sydney New Delhi: Simon & Schuster, 2017.

Ross, Caroline. “Exploring the Ways Arts and Culture Intersect with Public Safety: Identifying Current Practice and Opportunities for Further Inquiry – A Creative Placemaking Field Scan.” ArtPlace America, Urban Institute, April 2016.

Ross, Danny. “How Gentrification Is Killing Local Music Scenes.” Forbes. Accessed September 28, 2017.

Ross, Sara Gwendolyn. “Development versus Preservation Interests in the Making of a Music City: A Case Study of Select Iconic Toronto Music Venues and the Treatment of Their Intangible Cultural Heritage Value.” International Journal of Cultural Property 24, no. 1 (February 2017): 31–56.

Rothstein, David S. “Why Diversity Initiatives Rarely Make Gentrifying Neighborhoods More Equitable.” Next City (blog). Accessed October 5, 2017.

Rousseau, Max. “Re-Imaging the City Centre for the Middle Classes: Regeneration, Gentrification and Symbolic Policies in ‘Loser Cities.’” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 33, no. 3 (September 2009): 770–88.

Roy, Kishone. Make Housing Central: British Columbia and the Affordable Housing Crisis. Indyhan Books, 2017.

Royall, Emily, and Thomas Wortmann. “Finding the State Space of Urban Regeneration: Modeling Gentrification as a Probabilistic Process Using k-Means Clustering and Markov Models.” presented at the CUPUM 2015 – International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management, 2015.

“RPA Regional Plan Association.” Regional Plan Association. Accessed November 1, 2017.

Rucchetto, Anne, and Cian Knights. “Gentrification’s Toll on the Health of Long-Term Residents.” Healthy Debate: Opinions (blog), February 1, 2017.

Rufrano, Michelle. “‘Domed’ and Whited Out: Arts Gentrification and the Negotiation of Public Space in Long Island City, NY.” ETD Collection for Fordham University, January 1, 2014, 1–102.

Rugh, Peter. “Gentrification Prime,” October 17, 2017.

Rushowy, Kristin. “Arts, Culture Hubs to Get Property Tax Relief.” The Toronto Star, September 26, 2017, sec. Queen’s Park.

———. “Toronto Arts Hub 401 Richmond Getting Property Tax Relief.” The Toronto Star, September 26, 2017, sec. Queen’s Park.

Ryan, Jacob Richard Swinson. “Arts-Based Gentrification in Hamilton, ON.” Journal of Undergraduate Studies at Trent (JUST) 5, no. 1 (April 1, 2017): 61–67.

Ryan-Collins, Josh, Toby Lloyd, and Laurie Macfarlane. Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing. London: Zed Books, 2017.

Sabonis, Peter, and Matt Hill. “Community + Land + Trust: Tools for Development Without Displacement.” The Baltimore Housing Roundtable, n.d.

Sadik-Khan, Janette, and Seth Solomonow. Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution. New York, New York: Viking, 2016.

Sadler, Simon. “Review: Obsolescence: An Architectural History, by Daniel M. Abramson.” Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 76, no. 3 (September 1, 2017): 390–92.

Salone, Carlo, Sara Bonini Baraldi, and Giangavino Pazzola. “Cultural Production in Peripheral Urban Spaces: Lessons from Barriera, Turin (Italy).” European Planning Studies, May 12, 2017, 1–21.

Sanneh, Kelefa. “Is Gentrification Really a Problem?” The New Yorker, July 4, 2016.

Sasajima, Hideaki. “Cultural Aspects of Artist-Led Gentrification in SoHo Between the 1950s and 1970s: A Field Analysis of the Agglomeration Processes of Art Venues.” In The Ideal City: Between Myth and Reality. Representations, Policies, Contradictions and Challenges for Tomorrow’s Urban Life. Urbino, Italy, 2015.

Satell, Greg. Mapping Innovation: A Playbook for Navigating a Disruptive Age. 1 edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2017.

Saunders, Pete. “Where Educated Millennials Are Moving.” Forbes. Accessed October 5, 2017.

Savin-Baden, Maggi, and Claire Howell Major. Qualitative Research: The Essential Guide to Theory and Practice. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York: Routledge, 2012.

Scherabon, Herwig. “The Art of Gentrification: City Data Made Beautiful.” the Guardian, November 30, 2016.

Schlichtman, John Joe, Jason Patch, Marc Lamont Hill, and Peter Marcuse. Gentrifier. Toronto ; Buffalo ; London: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2017.

Schmitz, Adrienne. Multifamily Housing Development Handbook. Washington, D.C: Urban Land Institute, 2000.

Scholz, Trebor. Uberworked and Underpaid: How Workers Are Disrupting the Digital Economy. Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA: Polity, 2016.

Scholz, Trebor, and Nathan Schneider, eds. Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, A New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet, 2017.

Schrank, Aaron. “How an LA Community Is Fighting Back against Gentrification.” Marketplace (blog), September 28, 2017.

Schratt, Angela. Processes of Gentrification: A Survey of Brooklyn Residents. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2010.

Schuetz, Jenny. “Art Galleries May Be a Signal of Future Gentrification, but They Don’t Cause It.” Website. LSE American Politics and Policy, October 22, 2014.

———. “Do Art Galleries Stimulate Redevelopment?” Journal of Urban Economics 83 (September 2014): 59–72.

Schulkind, Rudy. “Should We Blame Art for Brixton’s Gentrification?” New Statesman (blog), July 5, 2017.

Schulman, Sarah. The Gentrification of the Mind: Witness to a Lost Imagination. Reprint edition. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 2013.

Schwab, Klaus. The Fourth Industrial Revolution. New York: Crown Business, 2017.

Schwartz, Madeleine. “The Art of Gentrification.” Dissent Magazine. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Schwartz, Samuel I., and William Rosen. Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars. 1 edition. New York: PublicAffairs, 2015.

Scottee. “UK Arts: Reasons Not to Get Involved.” The Guardian, February 3, 2014, sec. Culture professionals network.

Scutari, Mike. “The Future Is Here: Artplace America’s Latest Big Move on Creative Placemaking.” Inside Philanthropy, January 8, 2016.

———. “Three Reasons Why Creative Placemaking Represents the Future of Arts Funding.” Inside Philanthropy, March 29, 2014.

Sears, Kelton. “Redoubling Its Efforts, an Artist-Lead Activist Group Asks Vulcan for Equitable Development.” Seattle Weekly, September 22, 2017.

“Seattle Artist Coalition For Equitable Development.” Accessed October 18, 2017.

“Selected Publications.” Ted Rutland, PhD, Concordia University. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Senécal, Paul, Carole Tremblay, Dominique Teufel, and Société d’habitation du Québec: Direction de l’analyse et de la recherche. Gentrification or Urban Sprawl?: Central Montréal and Surrounding Area. Québec]: Société d’habitation du Québec, Direction gʹenʹerale de la planification et de la recherche, Direction de l’analyse et de la recherche, 1990.

September 26, Gordon Kent Published on:, 2017 | Last Updated: September 26, and 2017 9:30 Pm Mdt. “Minimum Wage Hike Could Lead to 25,000 Job Losses: C.D. Howe Report.” Edmonton Journal (blog), September 26, 2017.

Seresinhe, Chanuki Illushka, Tobias Preis, and Helen Susannah Moat. “Quantifying the Link between Art and Property Prices in Urban Neighbourhoods.” Royal Society Open Science 3, no. 4 (April 27, 2016).

Sewell, John. Houses and Homes: Housing for Canadians. First Paperback Edition edition. Toronto: Lorimer, 1994.

———. How We Changed Toronto: The inside Story of Twelve Creative, Tumultuous Years in Civic Life, 1969-1980. Toronto: Lorimer, 2015.

Sewell, John, and Jane Jacobs. The Shape of the City: Toronto Struggles with Modern Planning. 2nd ed. edition. Toronto ; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 1993.

Shahidi, Arjumand Siddiqi and Faraz Vahid. “Economic Inequality Is Bad for Our Health.” The Toronto Star, April 25, 2015, sec. Commentary.

Shapiro, Thomas M. Toxic Inequality: How America’s Wealth Gap Destroys Mobility, Deepens the Racial Divide, and Threatens Our Future. New York: Basic Books, 2017.

Shapiro, Tina. “Why Accessibility Is Fundamental to Social Inclusion: A Case Study with the Sistering Community.” ONN (blog), April 25, 2016.

Shaw, Kate. “Gentrification: What It Is, Why It Is, and What Can Be Done about It.” Geography Compass 2, no. 5 (September 2008): 1697–1728.

Shaw, Samuel, and Daniel Monroe Sullivan. “‘White Night’: Gentrification, Racial Exclusion, and Perceptions and Participation in the Arts.” City & Community 10, no. 3 (September 2011): 241–64.

Shearmur, Richard, Christophe Carrincazeaux, and David Doloreux. Handbook on the Geographies of Innovation. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016.

Shenker, Jack. “‘It’s Really Shocking’: UK Cities Refusing to Reveal Extent of Pseudo-Public Space.” The Guardian, September 26, 2017, sec. Cities.

Sheppard, Stephen. “Why Is Gentrification a Problem?” Centre for Creative Community Development, Williams College. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Sherman, Danya. “6 Things the Arts Can Do for Housing.” Shelterforce (blog), May 26, 2016.

———. “Gentrification Can’t Be the Theme of Rust Belt City Recovery.” Next City, December 4, 2017.

Shkuda, Aaron. “The Art Market, Arts Funding, and Sweat Equity: The Origins of Gentrified Retail.” Journal of Urban History 39, no. 4 (July 2013): 601–19.

———. The Lofts of SoHo: Gentrification, Art, and Industry in New York, 1950–1980. University of Chicago Press, 2016.

Sholette, Gregory. Delirium and Resistance: Activist Art and the Crisis of Capitalism. Pluto Press, 2017.

———, ed. It’s the Political Economy, Stupid: The Global Financial Crisis in Art and Theory. London: Pluto Pr, 2013.

———. “Nature as an Icon of Urban Resistance: Artists, Gentrification and New York City’s Lower East Side, 1979-1984.” Afterimage 25, no. 2 (September 1997): 17–20.

Short, John Rennie. A Research Agenda for Cities. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017.

Shrubsole, Megan K. Gentrification and Redevelopment: Planning, Power, and Politics Surrounding Urban Transformation in Mimico, Toronto, 2010.

“Sidewalk Labs.” Sidewalk Labs. Accessed October 25, 2017.

Sidnell-Greene, Sula. “Displacement in Parkdale: Gentrification, Resistance and Change.” Shameless Magazine (blog), October 13, 2015.

Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve, Kim Bridges, and Stefani Thachik. “How Families from Gentrifying Neighborhoods Can Help Break the Cycle of School Segregation.” USAPP (blog), March 4, 2017.

Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve, Stefani Thachik, and Kimberly Bridges. “Reform With Reinvestment: Values and Tensions in Gentrifying Urban Schools.” Education and Urban Society 49, no. 4 (May 1, 2017): 403–33.

Siepmann, Daniel. “Who Is Creative Placemaking? New Music, Integrity and Community.” NewMusicBox, July 9, 2014.

Signorelli, Anthony. Speculations on Postcapitalism: How Digitalization Is Disrupting Everything We Know About Modern Civilization. 1 edition. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2017.

Silver, James, and Jim Silver. Good Places to Live: Poverty and Public Housing in Canada. 1st edition. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2011.

Silver, Jim. Solving Poverty: Innovative Strategies from Winnipeg’s Inner City. Halifax ; Winnipeg: Fernwood Books Ltd, 2016.

Sinclair-Puchtinger, Anne M. “Gentrification in Canadian Inner Cities: An Investigation of Major Factors (Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Ontario, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Vancouver, British Columbia).” Wilfrid Laurier University, 1991.

Skinner, Josh. “Arthur Goes to Council: Gentrification and Performance Enhancing Develoment.” Arthur: The Peterborough & Trent University Independent Press (blog), November 8, 2016.

Slater, Tom. “Comparing Gentrification in South Parkdale, Toronto and Lower Park Slope, New York City: A ‘North American’ Model of Neighbourhood Reinvestment?” CNR Paper. Toronto: ESRC Centre for Neighbourhood Research, University of Toronto, April 2003.

———. “Municipally Managed Gentrification in South Parkdale, Toronto.” The Canadian Geographer/Le G?Ographe Canadien 48, no. 3 (September 2004): 303–25.

Slater, Tom, and University of Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies. Toronto’s South Parkdale Neighbourhood: A Brief History of Development, Disinvestment, and Gentrification. Research Bulletin (University of Toronto. Centre for Urban and Community Studies) ; 28. Toronto: University of Toronto Centre for Urban and Community Studies, 2005.

Slee, Tom. What’s Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy. Toronto: BETWEEN THE LINES, 2016.

Sloat, Sarah. “The Way to Predict Gentrification Through Social Media Data: Censuses Give a Poor Impression of the Socioeconomic Standing of a Neighbourhood. Twitter, Meanwhile, Does a Pretty Good Job.” Inverse: Innovation, April 13, 2016.

Sloat, Sarah, and 2016. “Social Media Data Reveals What Hoods Are Gentrifying.” Inverse, April 13, 2016.

Smart, Alan, and Josephine Smart. “Ain’t Talkin’ ‘Bout Gentrification: The Erasure of Alternative Idioms of Displacement Resulting from Anglo-American Academic Hegemony.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 41, no. 3 (May 1, 2017): 518–25.

Smart City – Creative City. Southbank, Australia, 2017.

“Smart Growth and Equitable Development.” Overviews and Factsheets. United States Environmental Protection Agency, February 24, 2014.

“Smartmap.” Urbanarium Society, January 30, 2015.

Smee, Michael. “Toronto Musicians about to Get a Home of Their Own?” CBC News, September 20, 2017.

Smit, Anneke, and Marcia Valiante, eds. Public Interest, Private Property: Law and Planning Policy in Canada. Reprint edition. Place of publication not identified: UBC Press, 2016.

Smith, David. “Forecasting Gentrification in City Neighborhoods, with R.” Revolutions, February 28, 2017.

Smith, Michael D., and Rahul Telang. Streaming, Sharing, Stealing: Big Data and the Future of Entertainment. 1 edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2016.

Smith, Neil. The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City. 1 edition. London: Routledge, 1996.

Smith, Neil, and Peter Williams, eds. Gentrification of the City. 1 edition. London: Routledge, 2007.

Smith, Russell. “Battle over Gentrification and Art Centre of Debate to Save London’s Fabric.” The Globe and Mail, September 21, 2016.

Smith, Stephen. “Gentrification Puts Pressure on Saint-Henri Schools to Adapt to New Social Mix.” CBC News, November 3, 2017.

———. “Who Is behind the Anti-Gentrification Violence in Saint-Henri?” CBC News, July 30, 2017.

“Sneak Peek: Montreal’s Neighbourhood Roundtables.” Cities for People. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“Social Impacts and Benefits of Arts and Culture: A Literature Review.” Department of Canadian Heritage, February 2016.

“Social-Cultural Urban Frameworks.” Policy Papers. New York: Habitat III, February 29, 2016.

“Soirée de Réflexion: « La Gentrification à Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, Un Problème Politique ? » – Événement Organisé En Collaboration Avec Quartier Hochelaga.” L’ESPIRIT LIBRE (blog), May 30, 2017.

Solnit, Rebecca. “Gentrification’s Toll: ‘It’s You or the Bottom Line and Sorry, It’s Not You.’” The Guardian, May 3, 2016, sec. Cities.

Sorensen, Andre, and Junichiro Okata, eds. Megacities – Urban Form, Governance, and Sustainability. Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration. Springer, 2011.

Sorrel, Charlie. “Berlin Models How Cities Can Push Back Gentrification And Keep Housing Affordable.” Fast Company, November 20, 2015.

Sousa, Jorge. Building a Co-Operative Community in Public Housing: The Case of the Atkinson Housing Co-Operative. Toronto ; Buffalo ; London: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2013.

Speck, Jeff. Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time. Reprint edition. New York: North Point Press, 2013.

Spencer, Stephen, and Andrew Cox. “Into the Divide: Community Identities and the Visualisation of Place.” Visual Studies 32, no. 2 (April 3, 2017): 97–110.

Sponagle, Michele. “Why Restaurant Veterans Are Ditching Toronto for Hamilton.” The Globe and Mail, January 6, 2017.

“SPUR Reports.” SPUR, June 18, 2015.

“Square Feet: The Artist’s Guide to Renting and Buying Creative Space.” Toronto Artscape, 2011.

Srnicek, Nick. Platform Capitalism. Cambridge, UK ; Malden, MA: Polity, 2016.

SRNICEK, Nick, and Alex Williams. Inventing the Future (Revised and Updated Edition): Postcapitalism and a World Without Work. Revised, Updated ed. edition. London: Verso, 2016.

“St. Michael’s Research Project Analyzes the Overall Health of 140 Toronto Neighbourhoods, Junction Rated Average.” The Junction Commons (blog). Accessed September 28, 2017.

staff, Star. “Four Ways to Bring Toronto Together.” The Toronto Star, February 13, 2015, sec. GTA.

Stafford, Katrease. “New Housing Developments in Detroit Now Required to Have 20% Affordable Housing Units.” Detroit Free Press. September 19, 2017.

Standing, Guy. Basic Income. London: Pelican, 2017.

———. Basic Income: A Guide for the Open-Minded. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017.

———. Basic Income: And How We Can Make It Happen. Penguin, 2017.

———. The Corruption of Capitalism: Why Rentiers Thrive and Work Does Not Pay. London: Biteback Publishing, 2017.

Starr, Ryan. “‘Any Colour You Want’ at the New Paintbox.” The Toronto Star, September 9, 2011, sec. Homes.

———. “Daniels Unveils Latest Condo Project.” The Toronto Star, October 11, 2012, sec. Homes.

———. “Regent Park Is Making New Waves.” The Toronto Star, February 14, 2014, sec. Homes.

“Statistics Canada: Less Than Half of All Canadians Aged 25-54 Now Have Full-Time, Year-Round Jobs.” PressProgress (blog). Accessed December 2, 2017.

Steif, Ken. “Exploring Neighborhood Change with Longitudinal Census Data.” Urban Spatial. Accessed August 30, 2017.

———. “Urban Spatial.” Urban Spatial. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Steif, Ken, Alan Mallach, Michael Finchman, and Simon Kassel. “Predicting Gentrification Using Longitudinal Census Data.” Urban Spatial. Accessed August 30, 2017.

Stein, Julia. “Writers and Filmmakers Take on Gentrification.”, November 9, 2017.

Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine, Rania Wasfi, George Parker, Lisa Bornstein, Jean Caron, and Yan Kestens. “Is Gentrification All Bad? Positive Association between Gentrification and Individual’s Perceived Neighborhood Collective Efficacy in Montreal, Canada.” International Journal of Health Geographics 16, no. 1 (December 2017).

Stephenson Jr., Max O., and A. Scott Tate, eds. Arts and Community Change: Exploring Cultural Development Policies, Practices and Dilemmas. Community Development Research and Practice Series. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2015.

Stern, Andy, and Lee Kravitz. Raising the Floor: How a Universal Basic Income Can Renew Our Economy and Rebuild the American Dream. New York: PublicAffairs, 2016.

Stevens, Lauren. “Anti-Gentrification Plan Pushes Forward.” Chicago News (blog), September 30, 2017.

Stewart, Savannah. “Referendums Help Fight Gentrification.” The Link. March 13, 2017.

Stiem, Tyler. “‘We Stand to Wipe out a Whole Era’: How the 1970s Could Vanish from Vancouver.” The Guardian, September 27, 2017, sec. Cities.

Stigler, Monica L. “That’s Just the Way It Is: Stories of Racial, Economic, and Educational Inequality Under Gentrification – ProQuest.” Arizona State University, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future. 1 edition. New York: WW Norton, 2012.

Stimmel, Carol L. Building Smart Cities: Analytics, ICT, and Design Thinking. 1 edition. Boca Raton: Auerbach Publications, 2015.

Stock, Naomi. “Creative Placemaking: Art as a Genesis for Civic Transformation.” Artrepreneur, June 28, 2017.

Stone, Ben, and Mallory Nezam. “Arts, Culture and Transportation: A Creative Placemaking Field Scan.” Washington, DC: ArtPlace America, Smart Growth America, Transportation for America, September 27, 2017.

Stone, Brad. The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World. Little, Brown and Company, 2017.

Storper, Michael, Thomas Kemeny, Naji Makarem, and Taner Osman. The Rise and Fall of Urban Economies: Lessons from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Reprint edition. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2016.

Storring, Nathan. “Jane Jacobs on Gentrification.” Nathan Storring (blog), October 29, 2014.

Streeck, Wolfgang. How Will Capitalism End?: Essays on a Failing System. Verso, 2016.

Sturtevant, Lisa. “Can We Predict Gentrification?” Helping Hands Blog: Housing Association of Nonprofit Developers (blog), July 7, 2016.

Suarez, Cyndi. “The Role of Artists in Gentrification: Linking the Art World to Resistance Movements.” Nonprofit Quarterly (blog), September 14, 2017.

Sullivan, Daniel Monroe. “Reassessing Gentrification: Measuring Residents’ Opinions Using Survey Data.” Urban Affairs Review 42, no. 4 (March 2007): 583–92.

Sullivan, Josh, and Angela Zutavern. The Mathematical Corporation: Where Machine Intelligence and Human Ingenuity Achieve the Impossible. 1 edition. New York: PublicAffairs, 2017.

Sundararajan, Arun. The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism. Reprint edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2017.

“Supporting Artists.” Australian Greens, June 7, 2016.

Suprovich, Gwen. “The Minimum Wage in Canada.” Research Psper. Canadian Labour Congress, April 2015.

Sustersic, Apolonija, and Liutauras Psibilski. Art Spaces and the Gentrification Process in East London. Frankfurt am Main: Revolver, 2005.

Sutherland, Liz. “Postcards from the Collaborative Economy.” ONN (blog), August 10, 2017.

Sutton, Benjamin. “Anti-Gentrification Activists Protest Laura Owens Exhibition at the Whitney Museum.” Hyperallergic, November 10, 2017.

Suttor, Greg. Still Renovating: A History of Canadian Social Housing Policy. Montréal ; Kingston ; London ; Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2016.

Swaminathan, Anand, and Jürgen Meffert. Digital @ Scale: The Playbook You Need to Transform Your Company. 1 edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley, 2017.

Swanson, Jean, and Sara Sagaii. “A National Housing Strategy to Maintain Homelessness for Decades to Come.” The Tyee, November 30, 2017.

Swanson, Kristen K., and Constance DeVereaux. “A Theoretical Framework for Sustaining Culture: Culturally Sustainable Entrepreneurship.” Annals of Tourism Research 62, no. Supplement C (January 1, 2017): 78–88.

Syed, Fatima. “Minimum-Wage Earners in Toronto Do Not Make Enough Money to Thrive, Report Says.” The Toronto Star, October 3, 2017, sec. GTA.

“Symposium: Smart City-Creative City.” Eventbrite. Accessed October 4, 2017.

Tait, Myra, and Kiera Ladner, eds. Surviving Canada: Indigenous Peoples Celebrate 150 Years of Betrayal. Winnipeg: Arbeiter Ring Publishing, 2017.

Takahashi, Koki. “Toronto’s Little Portugal: Gentrification and Social Relations among Local Entrepreneurs.” Urban Geography 38, no. 4 (April 21, 2017): 578–605.

Taplin, Jonathan. Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy. Little, Brown and Company, 2017.

Tapscott, Don, and Alex Tapscott. Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World. New York: Portfolio, 2016.

Taşan-Kok, Tuna, Gideon Bolt, Larissa Plüss, and Walter Schenkel. “A Handbook for Governing Hyper-Diverse Cities.” Utrecht: Utretcht University, Faculty of Geosciences, 2017.

Tasan-Kok, Tuna, Ronald van Kempen, Mike Raco, and Gideon Bolt. “Towards Hyper-Diversified European Cities: A Critical Literature Review.” Utrecht: Utretcht University, Faculty of Geosciences, 2013.

Tasan-Kok, Tuna, and Sara Ozogul. DIVERCITIES: Dealing with Urban Diversity: The Case of Toronto. Amsterdam and Delft: University of Amsterdam and TU Delft, 2017.

Tate, Karen. “Towards Equitable Placemaking: Incorporating Adaptive Reuse for Cultural Sustainability,” June 6, 2017.

Taylor, Cathy. “The Nonprofit Sector as a Champion for Decent Work.” Policy Options (blog), March 21, 2017.

“TechEquity Collaborative.” Accessed September 24, 2017.

Tegmark, Max. Life 3.0: Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Knopf, 2017.

“Telling Our Stories, Growing Our Economy: Developing a Culture Strategy for Ontario.” Discussion Paper. Ontario Ministry of Tourism, Culture and Sport. Accessed May 2, 2017.

Temin, Peter. The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 2017.

Tencer, Daniel. “The Surprising Cities Canadians Are Leaving.” Huffington Post Canada, January 3, 2017, sec. Business.

Terrill, Leon. Beyond Communal and Individual Ownership: Indigenous Land Reform in Australia. Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY: Routledge, 2015.

Tetlow, Gemma. “Consumers Are Bearing the Extra Cost of Living Wage.” Financial Times, July 10, 2016.

Thaden, Emily, and Ruoniu Wang. “Inclusionary Housing in the United States: Prevalence, Impact, and Practices.” Working Paper. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, September 2017.

The Affordable Housing Developers’ View of NYC’s Housing Conundrum. Accessed November 1, 2017.

“The Arts Intern Industry: The Case for Fair Pay.” YPIA. Accessed September 30, 2017.

“The Canadian CED Network | Strengthening Canada’s Communities.” Accessed October 7, 2017.

“The Changing Face of Centretown.” Xtra, August 15, 2012.

“The Future of Work.” Accessed October 1, 2017.–en/index.htm.

“The ‘G’ Word: A Special Series on Gentrification.” Governing the States and Localities, February 2015.

“The Housing Fix.” Accessed October 7, 2017.

“The Mastering Of A Music City | Music Cities Summit, Toronto.” The Mastering Of A Music City, 10:58.

“The Missing Middle Competition.” The Vancouver Urbanarium Society. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“The National Living Wage and You.” BBC News, April 1, 2016, sec. Business.

“‘The North Pole.’” The North Pole. Accessed September 30, 2017.

“The Parkdale People’s Economy Project.” The Parkdale People’s Economy Project. Accessed February 15, 2018.

“The Poverty Alliance – Scotland – Working Together to Combat Poverty.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

The Right to the City: A Verso Report. Verso Books, 2017.

“The Story of Your Apartment.” WNYC. Accessed November 1, 2017.

“The W.O.W. Project.” Wing on Wo & Co. Accessed January 6, 2018.

“Theaster Gates to Lead New Cultural Policy Partnership at Chicago Harris.” UChicago News (blog), February 1, 2016.

“There Goes the Neighborhood.” WNYC. Accessed November 25, 2017.

“There Goes the Neighborhood: LA, from KCRW and WNYC Studios.” Accessed November 25, 2017.

“Think Gentrification Is Bad? The Opposite Is Worse.” Mises Institute (blog), September 13, 2017.

Thomas, Derek. Placemaking: An Urban Design Methodology. 1 edition. S.l.: Routledge, 2017.

Thomas, Matthew. “Google’s City of the Future Could Be a Cultural Void. Here’s How to Fix It.” Medium (blog), October 24, 2017.

Thomas, Raemi. “A Change of Two Cities: A Comparative Case Study on Gentrification.” Scripps Senior Theses, January 1, 2017.

Thomas, Ren, ed. Planning Canada: A Case Study Approach. Oxford University Press, 2016.

Thompson, F. M. L. Gentrification and the Enterprise Culture: Britain 1780-1980. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Thompson, Marie. “UK Music Venues and the Auditory Politics of Gentrification.” Dancehall, no. 12 (n.d.): 3–8.

Thompson, Mitchell. “Housing in the Age of Austerity: Toronto’s War on the Poor.” Canadian Dimension, March 20, 2017.

Thompson, Nato. Culture as Weapon: The Art of Influence in Everyday Life. Brooklyn: Melville House, 2017.

———. Seeing Power: Art and Activism in the Twenty-First Century. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2015.

Thomson, Steven. “As ‘Gentrification’ Turns 50, Tracing Its Nebulous History.” Curbed, November 5, 2014.

Tianga, Keli A. “Art in the Face of Gentrification.” Shelterforce (blog), July 21, 2017.

Tidwell, Alan C., and Barry Scott Zellen, eds. Land, Indigenous Peoples and Conflict. 1 edition. London ; New York: Routledge, 2015.

Tierney, John. “How the Arts Drove Pittsburgh’s Revitalization.” The Atlantic, December 11, 2014.

Tighe, Rosie, and Elizabeth Mueller, eds. The Affordable Housing Reader. London ; New York: Routledge, 2012.

Tilk, Jennifer M. Women and Gentrification: Case Study of Riverdale, 1997.

Tirole, Jean. Economics for the Common Good. Translated by Steven Rendall. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017.

Tissot, Sylvie. Good Neighbors: Gentrifying Diversity in Boston’s South End. Translated by David Broder and Catherine Romatowski. London ; Brooklyn, NY: Verso, 2015.

Tiwana, Amrit. Platform Ecosystems: Aligning Architecture, Governance, and Strategy. 1 edition. Amsterdam ; Waltham, MA: Morgan Kaufmann, 2013.

“Too Much of a Good Thing.” Urban Capital. Accessed September 28, 2017.

“Toronto Leads Urban Population Growth.” CBC News. Accessed October 6, 2017.

“Toronto Media Arts Centre.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

“Toronto Music Strategy: Supporting and Growing the City’s Music Sector.” Toronto Music Advisory Council, February 2016.

“Toronto Studio Commons |.” Accessed January 6, 2018.

“Toronto’s Vital Signs 2016.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Tourism and Gentrification in the Metropolis.” February 24, 2015.

“Town of Aurora Cultural Master Plan 2014-2019.” Town of Aurora, AuthentiCity, The Planning Partnership, May 2014.

Townsend, Anthony M. Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. 1 edition. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.

Tran, Diep. “How Theatre Work Adds Up.” AMERICAN THEATRE (blog), January 24, 2017.

“Transforming Hamilton Through Culture: The Cultural Plan 2013.” City of Hamilton, 2013.

“Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” United Nations, 2015.

Trapunski, Richard. “Can Laneway Homes Take the Pressure off Toronto’s Real Estate Market?” NOW Magazine, March 22, 2017.

———. “Could Hamilton Really Be ‘Toronto’s Brooklyn’? That’s the Concept the City’s Mayor, Fred Eisenberger, and Condo Developer Brad J. Lamb Are Selling. But Are You Buying It?” NOW Magazine. May 30, 2017.

Tresca, Stefano L. Future Cities: 42 Insights and Interviews with Influencers, Startups, Investors. Seahorse Press, 2015.

———. Future Cities: Interviews with Startups, Investors, Influencers. First Edition edition. Seahorse Press, 2015.

Truong, Olivia. “Commercial Gentrification in Parkdale,” October 15, 2013.

Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton University Press, 2015.

Tuan, Yi-Fu. Space And Place: The Perspective of Experience. 25th ed. edition. Minneapolis, Minn.: Univ Of Minnesota Press, 2001.

Tuckey, Bryan. “Accessibility a Priority in Modern Designs.” The Toronto Star, March 26, 2016, sec. Homes.

———. “BILD Members Deliver Complete Communities, Not Just Buildings.” The Toronto Star, September 23, 2017, sec. Homes.

“Twenty Years on, Gallery 1313 Continues to Nourish Parkdale.” The Globe and Mail, September 15, 2017.

Twigge-Molecey, Amy. “Exploring Resident Experiences of Indirect Displacement in a Neighbourhood Undergoing Gentrification: The Case of Saint-Henri in Montreal.” Canadian Journal of Urban Research, June 22, 2014.…-a0398951168.

Tyeson, Cam. “Greens Float The Idea Of Paying Unemployed Artists An Actual Living Wage.” Pedestrian TV (blog), June 8, 2016.

Üblacker, Jan. “Participatory Intervention, Urban Development, and Gentrification: The Example of the ‘We Are Neighbours’ Project.” In Re-Imagining the City: Municipality and Urbanity Today from a Sociological Perspective, edited by Marta Smagacz-Poziemska, Krzysztof Frysztacki, and Andrzej Bukowski, First edition., 285–300. Kraków: Jagiellonian University Press, 2017.

“UK’s Labour Party Says Arts Council Should Only Fund Arts Organizations That Pay Living Wage.” The Dallas Art Dealers Association, August 14, 2017.

“Understanding the Forces Driving the Shelter Affordability Issue: A Linked-Path Assessment of Housing Market Dynamics in Ontario and the GTHA.” The Canadian Centre for Economic Analysis, May 2017.

“Urban America Forward: Fair Housing and Neighborhood Opportunity.” Centre for the Study of Race, Politics, and Culture of the University of Chicago (blog). Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Urban Culture and Heritage.” Issue Papers. New York: Habitat III, May 31, 2015.

“Urban Displacement Project.” Accessed August 30, 2017.

“Urban Institute | Social and Economic Policy Research.” Urban Institute. Accessed October 7, 2017.

“Urbanarium.” Urbanarium Society. Accessed October 5, 2017.

“Using Arts and Culture to Advance Equity and Inclusion: A Resource Highlighting Communities Utilizing Arts and Culture in Multiple Sectors to Advance Equity and Inclusion.” Inclusive Dubuque. Accessed October 7, 2017.

Vale, Lawrence J. Purging the Poorest: Public Housing and the Design Politics of Twice-Cleared Communities. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2013.

Valli, Chiara. “Pushing Borders : Cultural Workers in the Restructuring of Post-Industrial Cities,” 2017.

———. “Pushing Forwards the Gentrification Frontier : How the Art Scene Progresses Gentrification in Bushwick, New York City.” Urban Studies, 2017.

Valverde, Mariana. “How to Consult in Gentrifying Neighbourhoods.” Spacing Toronto (blog), November 17, 2015.

Van Criekingen, Mathieu, and Jean-Michel Decroly. “Revisiting the Diversity of Gentrification: Neighbourhood Renewal Processes in Brussels and Montreal.” Urban Studies 40, no. 12 (November 2003): 2451–68.

Van Gent, W.P.C., W.R. Boterman, and M.S. Hoekstra. “State-Sponsored Gentrification or Social Regeneration? Symbolic Politics and Neighborhood Intervention in an Amsterdam Working Class Neighborhood.” Working Paper Series. Amsterdam: Centre for Urban Studies, November 2016.

“Vanishing Seattle.” Vanishing Seattle. Accessed October 18, 2017.

Varady, David P., Wolfgang F. E. Preiser, and Francis P. Russell, eds. New Directions in Urban Public Housing. 1 edition. New Brunswick, N.J: CUPR/Transaction, 1998.

Vasudevan, Alexander. The Autonomous City: A History of Urban Squatting. London ; New York: Verso, 2017.

Vaughan, RM. “POINT OF VIEW: Who Makes up the 1%? In the Arts, It’s the Bureaucrats.” CBC Arts, July 8, 2016.

Vella, Erica. “Millennial Pens Open Letter, Says Toronto Real Estate Prices Too High.” Global News, May 11, 2017.

Vendeville, Geoffrey. “Residents Want to Keep the Malt In St. Henri.” The Link. September 23, 2013.

Vermeulen, Pieter. “Gentrify Everything: New Forms of Critical Artistic Agency.” MaHKUscript: Journal of Fine Art Research 1, no. 2 (December 13, 2016).

“Videos – Culture Media Economy Monash University Australia.” Culture Media Economy Monash University Australia. Accessed October 4, 2017.

Vogl, Charles. The Art of Community: Seven Principles for Belonging. 1 edition. Oakland, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2016.

Vona, Viktoria. “The Role of Art and Artists in Contesting Gentrification in London and New York City.” Ph.D., King’s College London, 2016.

Voon, Claire. “In Protest of Gentrification, Sydney Residents Turn Towers into Light Displays.” Hyperallergic, September 12, 2017.

Vowel, Chelsea. Indigenous Writes: A Guide to First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Issues in Canada. Winnipeg, Manitoba: HighWater Press, 2016.

Vu. “All Right, We Need to Talk about Nonprofit Salaries.” Nonprofit AF (blog), September 22, 2014.

“WAGE Working Artists and the Greater Economy.” Accessed September 30, 2017.

Wainwright, Oliver. “‘Everything Is Gentrification Now’: But Richard Florida Isn’t Sorry.” The Guardian, October 26, 2017, sec. Cities.

Walks, Alan. “Income Inequality and Polarization in Canada’s Cities: An Examiniation and New Form of Measurement.” Neighbourhood Change Research Partnership. Toronto: University of Toronto, August 2013.

———, ed. The Urban Political Economy and Ecology of Automobility: Driving Cities, Driving Inequality, Driving Politics. Routledge, 2014.

Walks, Alan R., and Richard Maaranen. “The Timing, Patterning, & Forms of Gentrification & Neighbourhood Upgrading in Montreal, Toronto, & Vancouver, 1961 to 2001.” Research Psper. Toronto: Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, May 2008.

Ward, Getahn, and Mike Rwicher. “There Goes the Neighborhood: New Community Names Crop up in Gentrifying Nashville.” The Tennessean, October 26, 2017.

“Ward Profiles.” City of Hamilton, June 1, 2015.

Warren, May. “Affordable Housing for Artists Aims to Keep Them in Toronto.” The Toronto Star, December 8, 2015, sec. GTA.

———. “How Toronto’s Rental Market Is Squeezing Millennials.” Metro News, March 13, 2017.

———. “Ontario Economy Leaving Young People behind, Says New Report.” Metro News, April 5, 2017.

———. “Why Generation Squeeze Is Tackling Unaffordable Housing.” Metro News, March 6, 2017.

“Washington City Paper’s Handbook for the Responsible Gentrifier.” Washington City Paper. Accessed November 5, 2017. //

Wasielewski, Amanda. Made in Brooklyn: Artists, Hipsters, Makers, and Gentrification. Charlotte, NC: Zero Books, 2018.

“Waterloos’ Culture Plan: A Catalyst for Culture 2014-2024.” City of Waterloo, 2014.

Watson Pelaez, Marina. “The Global March of Gentrification.”, August 24, 2017.

Watson, William. The Inequality Trap: Fighting Capitalism Instead of Poverty. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2015.

Webb, Debra. “Placemaking and Social Equity: Expanding the Framework of Creative Placemaking.” Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts 3, no. 1 (Winter 2014): 35–48.

Webb, Elizabeth. “ArtChangeUS@ Design For Equity.” Arts in a Changing America (blog), July 11, 2016.

Webber, L. Grace. “Gentrifying the Commons // Commoning Gentrification.” Arts Everywhere, (Un)usual Business, 1 (May 25, 2017).

Weibel, Peter, and Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie Karlsruhe. Global Activism: Art and Conflict in the 21st Century. Karlsruhe, Germany : ZKM, Center for Art and Media, 2015.

“Weinland Park Project Rises over Neighborhood.” The Lantern, April 13, 2015, sec. A+E.

Welch, Tim, Joshua Warkentin, and Michelle German. “Scaling Up Joint Ventures between Social Housing Providers and Private Sector Builders.” Evergreen, July 2017.

“Welcome to the QGIS Project!” Accessed September 28, 2017.

West, Geoffrey. Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies. Reprint edition. S.l.: Penguin Books, 2018.

“West Queen West Triangle: What Happened?” Urbanspace Gallery. Accessed October 28, 2017.

Wetherell, Sam. “Richard Florida Is Sorry.” Jacobin, August 18, 2017.

“What Is Gentrification?” POV Flag Wars: American Documentary Inc. (blog), January 17, 2003.

“What Is the Living Wage?” BBC News, November 2, 2014, sec. Business.

“What We Heard across Canada: Canadian Culture in a Digital World.” Ipsos Public Affairs, February 21, 2017.

Wheeler, Ted, Nick Fish, and Chloe Eudaly. “A Plan for Preserving and Expanding Affordable Arts Space in Portland,” January 2018.

White, Hannah, and Loretta Lees. “Why We Can’t Afford to Lose It: Local Authority Housing in London Protects the Poor from Homelessness.” London: University of Leicester, 2015.

White, Richard. Planning Toronto: The Planners, The Plans, Their Legacies, 1940-80. Vancouver ; Toronto: UBC Press, 2016.

Whiting, James, and Kevin Hannam. “‘The Secret Garden’: Artists, Bohemia and Gentrification in the Ouseburn Valley, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.” European Urban and Regional Studies 24, no. 3 (May 22, 2016): 318–34.

“Who Can Afford to Be A Starving Artist?” Createquity. Accessed January 4, 2018.

Whyte, Murray. “Akin Collective Buys Artists Space and Time.” The Toronto Star, February 3, 2017, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Artistic Transformation for Long-Closed Shaw Street School.” The Toronto Star, May 15, 2010, sec. Entertainment.

———. “Artscape Youngplace: School Is Now in Session.” The Toronto Star, November 23, 2013, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “City Moves to Save 401 Richmond and Other Cultural Institutions.” The Toronto Star, January 31, 2017, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Drawing the Line on Cultural Development in Toronto.” The Toronto Star, April 4, 2015, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “For Toronto Arts Spaces, a Creative Tax Break Takes Shape.” The Toronto Star, December 18, 2017, sec. Analysis.

———. “Good News for 401 Richmond — but What Took so Long?” The Toronto Star, September 26, 2017, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Group Sues City over Cancelled Queen West Arts Hub.” The Toronto Star, June 15, 2015, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Relief for 401 Richmond Tenants on the Way, City Hopes.” The Toronto Star, April 3, 2017, sec. Entertainment.

———. “Shaw Street School Reopens as Artscape Youngplace.” The Toronto Star, November 20, 2013, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Skyrocketing Commercial Rents Purge Reluctant Artists from Toronto’s West End.” The Toronto Star, October 23, 2016, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “The Koffler Gallery: Uptown Comes Downtown.” The Toronto Star, November 18, 2013, sec. Visual Arts.

———. “Time Running out for Deal to Save 401 Richmond.” The Toronto Star, June 15, 2017, sec. Visual Arts.

Wierzba, Tomasz. “Transforming Downtown St. Catharines into a Creative Cluster.” Brock University, 2014.

Wilde, Katie. “3 Things You May Not Know About Artists Rights in Canada.” Guelph Arts Council (blog). Accessed September 30, 2017.

Williams, Rhonda Y. The Politics of Public Housing: Black Women’s Struggles against Urban Inequality. 1 edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Willis, Interview by Sam. “Bow Arts Chief: We Must Ensure Affordable Places for Artists to Work.” The Guardian, July 28, 2015, sec. Culture professionals network.

Willis, Sarah C. “Artistic Expressions Amidst Gentrification: Reclaiming Identity and Authenticity in Gentrified Public Spaces.” Roosevelt University, 2016. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Wilson, Kevin, and Roger Mantie. “Inspiring Soulful Communities through Music: Connecting Arts Entrepreneurship Education and Community Development via Creative Placemaking.” Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts 6, no. 2 (n.d.): 32–45.

Winikoff, Tamara. “We Don’t Pay Visual Artists Properly – That Needs to Change.” The Guardian, February 7, 2017, sec. Art and design.

Winkless, Laurie. Science and the City: The Mechanics Behind the Metropolis. Bloomsbury Sigma, 2016.

Winsa, Patty. “Century-Old School to Become Arts Centre.” The Toronto Star, January 28, 2010, sec. GTA.

———. “New Life for Shaw St. School as Studios for Artists.” The Toronto Star, January 29, 2010, sec. GTA.

Winters, Chris. “Shop Here, Not There: Science Says Reducing Inequality Is Almost That Simple.” YES! Magazine, November 20, 2017.

Wise, Leonard, and Allan Gould. Toronto Street Names: An Illustrated Guide to Their Origins. 2 edition. Richmond Hill, Ont. ; Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2011.

Wolff, Tom. “Voices from the Field: 10 Places Where Collective Impact Gets It Wrong.” Nonprofit Quarterly, April 28, 2016.

Wolk, Alan. Over The Top: How The Internet Is (Slowly But Surely) Changing The Television Industry. S.l.: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2015.

Wong, Joanne. “Regent Park: Revitalization or Gentrification?” The Toronto Star. September 12, 2010.

Woronkowicz, Joanna. “Art-Making or Place-Making? The Relationship between Open-Air Performance Venues and Neighborhood Change.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 36, no. 1 (July 31, 2015): 49–59.

Wu, Chao, Xinyue Ye, Fu Ren, You Wan, Pengfei Ning, and Qingyun Du. “Spatial and Social Media Data Analytics of Housing Prices in Shenzhen, China.” Edited by Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo. PLOS ONE 11, no. 10 (October 26, 2016): e0164553.

Wynn, Jonathan. “Why Cities Should Stop Building Museums and Focus on Festivals.” The Conversation, May 12, 2016.

Wynn, Jonathan, and Andrew Deener. “INSIGHT: Have Big Cities Hijacked the Gentrification Debate?” My Statesman (blog), October 11, 2017.

“‘X’ Marks the Spot Where Inequality Took Root: Dig Here.” Economic Opportunity Institute (blog), August 5, 2015.

Yawar, Mahnoor. “Hamilton Homebuyers Being Priced out of City: Experts.” CBC News, October 26, 2016.

Yelland, Tannara. “‘Rent Control vs. Housing Supply’ Is the Debate Landlords and Developers Want Us to Have.” Torontoist, October 5, 2017.

Yeung, Michelle. “The Young Artists of (a Gentrified) Hamilton.” The Silhouette. April 6, 2017.

Yoon, Heeyeun, and Elizabeth Currid-Halkett. “Industrial Gentrification in West Chelsea, New York: Who Survived and Who Did Not? Empirical Evidence from Discrete-Time Survival Analysis.” Urban Studies 52, no. 1 (January 2015): 20–49.

Yu, Betty. “Chinatown Art Brigade: Resisting Gentrification through the Power of Art, Culture and Stories.” Visual Inquiry: Learning & Teaching Art 6, no. 2 (June 2017): 173–78.

Yu, Sydnia. “Arts-Themed High-Rise Community Coming to Queens Quay.” The Globe and Mail, October 21, 2015.

Zarsadiaz, James Frank Dy. “Why Gentrification Is So Hard to Stop.” CityLab. Accessed October 3, 2017.

Zavestoski, Stephen, and Julian Agyeman. Incomplete Streets: Processes, Practices, and Possibilities. Routledge, Equity, Justice, and the Sustainable City Series. Abingdon, Oxon ; Routledge, 2015.

Zheng, Siqi, and Matthew Kahn. “Does Government Investment in Local Public Goods Spur Gentrification? Evidence from Beijing.” Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2011.

Zhong, Sheng. “Artists and Shanghai’s Culture-Led Urban Regeneration.” Cities 56 (July 2016): 165–71.

Zielenbach, Sean. The Art of Revitalization: Improving Conditions in Distressed Inner-City Neighborhoods. 1 edition. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Zuk, Miriam. “Rent Control: The Key to Neighborhood Stabilization?” Urban Displacement Project (blog), September 9, 2015.

Zuk, Miriam, Ariel H. Bierbaum, Karen Chapple, Karolina Gorska, and Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris. “Gentrification, Displacement, and the Role of Public Investment.” Journal of Planning Literature, July 2, 2017, 0885412217716439.

Zukin, Sharon. “Gentrification: Culture and Capital in the Urban Core.” Annual Review of Sociology 13, no. 1 (August 1, 1987): 129–47.

———. “Gentrification in Three Paradoxes.” City & Community 15, no. 3 (September 2016): 202–7.